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CHAPTER 2, SECTION 1 “LECTURE NOTES” The Rise of Parliament.

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1 CHAPTER 2, SECTION 1 “LECTURE NOTES” The Rise of Parliament

2 English Kings had great power and worked with Parliament after Magna Carta, Bishop Jacques Bossuet“It is God who establishes kings…the person of kings is sacred, and to move against them is a crime” = divine right of kings (Louis XIV of France, “I am the state.”)

3 Tudor dynasty (Henry VIII and Elizabeth I) find an advantage to have support of Parliament. By 1700, English monarchs recognize Parliament as ultimate authority. Tudors needed Parliament’s help in religious policies (no separation of church & state.)

4 Henry VIII wanted “papal” support to divorce Catherine (no male heirs) & to remarry. Pope refused because: marriage is sacred Catherine’s royal family Henry declared himself head of Church of England (Anglican) Act of Supremacy in 1534 = king is “the only supreme head on earth of the Church of England.”

5 Why did Parliament agree? king was still most powerful authority king sold church lands to members of Parliament

6 Why did Henry want a new Church and whose permission did he have to get for this action?

7 Protestant Reformation in England vs. Catholics of Spain & France Mary wanted to make England Catholic again (persecuted religious foes) Elizabeth, (half-sister) took power “repealed” pro-Catholic laws. Elizabeth wanted national Anglican church, to give monarch more power.

8 Puritans (“fervent” Protestants) desired: “purify” Anglican Church of Catholic similarities congregations to be independent of government (elect their own ministers.)

9 Puritans in Parliament drafted legislation to change religious policies. Elizabeth’s government began persecuting Puritans, many emigrated to New England colonies in N. America. influenced American belief in “separation of church and state.”

10 1. Who gained power in parliament and what was their Goal? 2. When persecuted where did they flee too and what do we know them as?

11 Conflict king vs Parliament Charles I. believed that he could spend money, build, & make foreign alliances No confirmation of parliament. Parliament -petition that king could not impose taxes without its consent.

12 Charles I closed parliament and arrested key members. Eleven Years Tyranny, Charles I ruled without Parliament. House of Lords & House of Commons had no power

13 King governed W/O Parliament led Military Force 1642 Civil War (English Revolution) = Royalists (king’s forces) vs. Roundheads (Parliament’s forces)

14 What was the main cause of the figh?.

15 Why Parliament’s forces won civil war: 1. military genius of Sir Oliver Cromwell & his New Model Army 2. “zealous” Puritans were fighting for their faith

16 ENGlAND and Parliament PART II Oliver Cromwell takes Power Cromwell “purged” Parliament of those who disagreed with executing king. Remaining members, “Rump Parliament,” agreed to execute king. Beheading of king scared kings in Europe

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18 Parliament abolished monarchy & House of Lords(No Nobility) Cromwell found Parliament hard to work with, abolished it & set up military dictatorship Cromwell’s “puritanical” rule of a “godly society” was not a “free society”

19 After Cromwell’s death Parliament was “resurrected.” It then restored the Stuart heir to throne, Charles II.

20 Charles II was sympathetic to Catholicism. Parliament passed Exclusion Bill, which prohibited heir James II from taking throne, if he professed his Catholicism.(Fear Catholic King) Bill created two political parties: Whigs (anti Catholic king) & Tories (followed lawful succession to throne.) To foil Exclusion Bill, king dismissed Parliament.

21 James II succeeded CharlesII. Began appointing Catholics to important offices. Caused fear of restored Catholicmonarchy.

22 By 1688, England’s lords & landowners reached “consensus”, did NOT want a: king to “dictate” to Parliament Catholic king. English noblemen staged a “coup” by inviting Dutch leader, William of Orange (Holland/the Netherlands), to de-throne James & rule England. William was married to James’s Protestant daughter Mary.

23 “Glorious Revolution.” William & Mary raised an army and took England with little opposition James II fled to France. With almost no bloodshed, In 1689, Parliament offered throne to William & Mary, if they accepted Bill of Rights.

24 English Bill of Rights established: Parliament’s rights to make laws, levy taxes & raise armies citizens’ rights to keep “arms” and trial by jury. became foundation of U.S. Bill of Rights. Toleration Act granted Puritans, but not Catholics, the right to public worship. However, very few Englishwere ever again persecuted for their faith. England became a “tolerant haven” for those seeking refuge from religious persecution in Europe.

25 Parliament destroyed the theory of divine right of kings.

26 Philosophers of the Enlightenment CH2 Section 2 The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that began in France = leaders called philosphes. If reason enabled scientists to discover secrets of universe, then reason could make govt. & society more just.

27 John Locke of England John Locke of England wrote that babies were born with “blank-slate” minds, learned everything from their environment, therefore it was vital to build a rational society (not superstitious or bound to old traditions) in which to raise children.

28 John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government (1690) criticized absolutism & defended Glorious Revolution. humans were born with natural rights but they weren’t effective in protecting these rights. So people agreed to a contract with government (mutual obligations.) Govt. would protect rights & people would obey govt. If government broke the contract-then people justified in rebelling and forming a new govt. “People” -were landholding elites, not commoners. did not advocate true democracy, his ideas encouraged democratic trends.

29 Locke’s arguments were used to demand rule oflaw & individual rights in both American & French Revolutions.

30 Philosophes focused on optimistic themes: reason, natural law, hope and progress.

31 Voltaire was a “Parisian” and a “prolific” Enlightenment author. He was imprisoned for insulting a nobleman & then exiled to England for 3 years. He spoke out vs. censorship (i.e. he was for freedom of speech, freedom of the press, etc.) He liked England’s freer society. When he returned he criticized French institutions, his book was banned! Opposed the Catholic Church for supporting absolutism and traditional Christianity for not encouragingpeople to think rationally. He was a “deist” who campaigned for religious toleration, “all men are brothers under God.”

32 Montesquieu closely studied governments (first political scientist.) Concluded that English govt. functioned through a separation of powers into three branches: executive (monarch) 2. legislative (Parliament) 3. judicial (courts) Each branch placed limits and controls on the other branches to prevent abuse of power (checks & balances)

33 Montesquieu’s ideas greatly influenced the writing of the U.S. Constitution

34 Jean-Jacques Rousseau In his writing, The Social Contract, he reasoned that all society should be governed by the general will, whichis best for everyone, those who seek their own self-interest “will be forced to be free.” argued in Emile that education should “foster” children’s natural instincts, not restrict them. He believed that emotion also held a kind of truth, his goal = find a balance between emotion (the heart) andreason (the mind.) he was a male “chauvinist” who argued that women should learn obedience and nurturing skills.

35 Ha ha ha

36 New fields of study = the social sciences. Economics founded by “Physiocrats” of France and Adam Smith ofScotland,

37 Adam Smith argued in The Wealth of Nations that the law of supply and demand would work in everyone’s best economic interest. laissez-faire- Complete capitalism and government stays out of Business

38 Cesare Beccaria Italy proposed a new approach to justice in On Crimes and Punishments. He argued that brutal punishments did not “deter” people from committing crime. “Is it not absurd, that the laws, which punish murder, should, in order to prevent murder, publicly commit murder themselves?” His writings influenced the 8 th Constitutional amendment “no cruel or unusual punishment.”

39 Denis Diderot was a French philosophe who published the first Encyclopedia. Many copies sold, expanded general knowledge & spread Enlightenment ideas. Coffeehouses and salons were meeting places for reading and discussions. Salons were very popular & hosted by women. Salons attracted different classes to mix and share ideas

40 Mary Wollstonecraft Women were able to influence political opinion and influence literary and artistic tastes. English writer, was the founder of the women’s rights movement. In A Vindication of the Rights of Women, she identified two problems w. most male Enlightenment thinkers: Why should women obey men w/o question if it’s okay for people to challenge an absolutist govt.? Since the focus is on reason, and women have reason, then they too should have the same natural rights in education, economics and politics that men have.

41 CHAPTER 2, Section 3 “Lecture Notes American Independence

42 Thomas Jefferson and James Madison = both influenced by writings of John Locke. Declaration of Independence = citizens justified in rebelling vs. a govt. that doesn’t protect people’s rights. Americans convinced that King George III and the English Parliament were denying their natural rights.

43 Ideas Spread to North America& South America With the advent of the printing press and larger numbers of literate people (including women and middle classes) a market for mass production of books, periodicals (magazines) and newspapers was created

44 Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal” = all humans should have samerights& opportunities “they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights” = God gave all people permanent rights “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” = John Locke’s natural rights: to live, be free & to seek afulfilling life

45 Key points of Dec of Independence “to secure these rights, Governments are instituted” = governments were created to protect people’s rights “deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” = people give govt. permission to have powers to govern “Whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alteror to abolish it” = people have right to overthrow a government that abuses power “and to institute new Government.” = people are to replace it w. a government that DOES protect their rights.

46 Which argument presented by Jefferson makes best sense for rebellion to you?

47 Colonial Government Parliament governed American colonies, but in practice colonists had their own colonial legislatures Caucasian, land-owning males elected their representatives to the legislatures.

48 FRANCE VS BRITAIN French North America = Canada & Louisiana Territory, vast trading area, sparsely populated England’s 13 colonies = densely populated. British colonists wanted to settle west, but French forts prevented. Britain & France fought “Seven Years War” (French and Indian War) to control N. American continent. Britain’s Prime Minister William Pitt used British navy to defeat weaker French fleet. British forces defeated French near Quebec, Canada Treaty of Paris granted Canada & French land east of the Mississippi to Britain. British Empire was largest in world (“The sun never sets on the British Empire.”)

49 Predict? How Do you think the Crown will pay for this debt from the War? Who Should Pay For this?

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51 Parliament Taxes To raise Money 1765 Stamp Act on colonies (repealed a year later due to protest.) tariffs on non-British made goods, led to American smuggling & British searches ofAmerican homes w/o warrants. Declaratory Act = Parliament alone had right to tax and make decisions for colonies. This undermined colonial govt’s authority, colonists outraged, “No taxation without representation!”

52 Colonist React to Taxes Boston Massacre -5 deaths, but began huge anti-British propaganda campaign (Paul Revere.) 1773 Tea Act gave British East India Co. a monopoly on tea market and decreased American profits. Boston Tea Party = Samuel Adams & other patriots dressed as Indians, boarded ship & dumped British tea. King George III ordered Parliament to pass Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) (including violation of trial by jury, forcing people to “quarter” British troops, etc.)

53 What are advantages in staying with the British? What are disadvantages of being Independent?

54 1774 First Continental Congress in Philadelphia “I am not a Virginian, but an American” Patrick Henry called for: repeal of Intolerable Acts, boycott of British goods, formation of colonial militias, sent a Declaration of Rights & Grievances to king, still claimed loyalty to the “Crown.”

55 Colonist Fight British April, 1775 British troops sent to seize arms & supplies of militias. Lexington & Concord, first time fighting broke out between British & American forces, “the shot heard round the world!”

56 May, 1775 Second Continental Congress Organized continental army under Gen. George Washington. Also sent Olive Branch Petition. King refused to even look at petition. Sent 30,000 German troops instead! Jan, 1776 Thomas Paine’s pamphlet “Common Sense” widely circulated = demanded American independence

57 What are examples of colonists trying to end things peacefully?

58 Independence July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence proclaimed & colonies celebrated. American Revolution had begun. Big gamble: signers signed their own death warrant! Patriots vs. world’s best military force & richest nation.

59 Patriot advantages fighting on home turf, fighting for freedom, support from France (Lafayette) Spain Help Colonist because enemy was Britain Both sides thought war would be short, but it lasted 7 years!

60 Americans gain independence Gen. Cornwallis surrendered to Americans & French at Yorktown in Treaty of Paris recognized U.S. independence & expansion west to the Mississippi (doubled in size!)

61 Articles of Confederation (nation’s 1 st constitution = weak national govt. due to fear of power abuse.

62 Constitutional Convention of 1787 in Philadelphia -met to revise Articles, but instead wrote whole new one! -Constitution created a federal system = shared powers between federal & state governments.

63 What is a Federal Power and what is a State Power?

64 3 Branches of Federal Gov I. President (enforces laws, veto power, supervise foreign affairs, commander in chief of military) II. Congress (write laws) House of Representatives elected by people. Senate elected by state legislatures(today by people) III. Supreme Court (judges “constitutionality” of laws & actions and interprets meaning of Constitution “Supreme Law of the Land”)

65 Constitution ratified(approved) 9 of 13 states. The promise of a Bill of Rights won sufficient support in 1788 First 10 amendments = Bill of Rights (ratified in 1791) includes: freedom of religion, speech, press, right to petition, peacefully assemble, bear arms, trial by jury & due process. U.S. Constitution embodied ideas of Enlightenment ( worldwide model & inspiration for freedom.) It islongest “living” Constitution in world today!

66 Differences of Glorious Revolution from American and French Revolutions: “bloodless” upper class demanding rights from king, whereas in America and France, it was mostly the lower & middle classes. Glorious Revolution inspired French thinkers to speak out against absolutism. British (English) colonists supported Parliament’s fight and saw their own representatives as having the samerights in America.

67 Review of Primary Source The Progress of Man, by Edward Gibbon. Describes how humans have progressed over the centuries. He wasoptimistic about future of humanity, but was naïve about human nature! Encyclopedie, by Denis Diderot. His goal was to collect all knowledge gained over centuries, organize it intogeneral outlines to make accessible to everyone. This he believed would help bring happiness to thepeople(i.e. “the pursuit of happiness”.) The Social Contract, by Jean-Jacques Rosseau. People must seek the general will rather than individual wants.

68 3 Revolutions Glorious Revolution (England) = established that king must “submit” to Parliament American Revolution = defined roles of democratic government institutions & rights of citizens French Revolution = practiced principles of liberty & equality for all men


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