2 Akbar the great Second battle of Panipat-1556 Hemu Bairam Khan Bairam Khan’s legacyManages affairs for 4 years.Conquered Gwalior, Ajmer, JaipurAt the age of 18, in 1560, Akbar assumes absolute power.Panipat
3 Conquests of Akbar Malwa:- (1561)led by Adham Khan. Baz Bahadur, the Afghan king fled.Gondwana:- (1564) Defeated Rani Durgavati.Rajputs:-enters into matrimonial alliances.Raja of Jaipur(amber)Rana of Mewar(Udai singh) refused. Led an army to Chittor. Death of Jai Mal, Rajput commander was a blow.
4 Conflict with Rana Pratap Singh 1576HaldighatiUdai singh built Udaipur-new capital.Recovers parts ofChittor.
5 Akbar the great Conquest of Gujarat- 1572 Cotton fields, flourishing seaports, trade with European merchants.Conquest of BengalTrade links with south east Asia and China.Rich revenues to Mughal treasuryConquests of North westKashmir, Kandahar, lower Sind(1591)Baluchistan (1595)Deccan Campaigns-1601Berar, Khandesh, part of Ahmadnagar.
6 His empire stretched from Hind Kush mountains in the west to Brahmaputra in the east, Himalayas in the north to Godavari in the south.
7 Administration of Akbar Central AdministrationDecision was final, word was law.Commander-in-chief of armed forcesSupreme judge on all matters of justice.Sole right in making appointments, dismissal, promotionCouncil of ministers:-1Wazir/diwanRevenue department2Mir bakshiMilitary and head of mansabdars3QaziChief judge4Chief sadrSupervisor of royal household
9 Provincial Administration Diwan-i-AamCommon subjectsProvincial AdministrationSubaspanchayatsarkarsSubhedar and diwanparganasvillages
10 The mansabdari system Mansabdar-holder of a rank Every officer given a rank or mansabon the nature of job.Salary/jagirs given according to rankAfter his death, back to the kingCavalry, loyal trusted soldiers,royal body guards,palace guards, artillery.
11 Revenue System-Todar Mal’s bandobast Use of bamboo jarib to survey land4 categories(times cultivated)Good, bad ,middlingRevenue based on averageof past 10 years1/3rd was King’s share.Relief measures for the peasants.
12 Akbar interacting with religious scholars. Ibadat Khana – Hall of Prayer(1575)Invited leaders of other faiths to have discussions on matters related to religion.Issues declaration called the mazhar, which gave him the power to chose different interpretationof the Islamic law.Akbar interacting with religious scholars.
13 Akbar’s religionSulh-i-Kul or universal peace.Formation of Din-i-llahibelief in one GodEmperor as God’s representative on earthRajput policyTreated them with respectDid not annex their kingdoms, if they recognized him as their overlord and paid him regular tribute.Social reforms.Prohibited sati, legalized widow remarriage.Discouraged child marriage. 14 yrs for girls and 16 for boys.
14 Educational reforms Study of secular subjects Translation department set up.LiteratureAkbarnama by Abul Fazl-fine Persian workFaizi, poet-laureateRaja Birbal-hindi Kavi RajRamacharitamanas written byTulsidas24000 books-written bycalligraphists.