Presentation on theme: "Akbar the Great. Akbar the great Second battle of Panipat-1556 Hemu Bairam Khan Bairam Khan’s legacy Manages affairs for 4 years. Conquered Gwalior,"— Presentation transcript:
Akbar the Great
Akbar the great Second battle of Panipat-1556 Hemu Bairam Khan Bairam Khan’s legacy Manages affairs for 4 years. Conquered Gwalior, Ajmer, Jaipur At the age of 18, in 1560, Akbar assumes absolute power. Panipat
Conquests of Akbar 1. Malwa:- (1561)led by Adham Khan. Baz Bahadur, the Afghan king fled. 2 Gondwana:- (1564) Defeated Rani Durgavati. 3 Rajputs:-enters into matrimonial alliances. Raja of Jaipur(amber) Rana of Mewar(Udai singh) refused. Led an army to Chittor. Death of Jai Mal, Rajput commander was a blow.
Conflict with Rana Pratap Singh Udai singh built Udaipur-new capital. Recovers parts of Chittor. Haldighati 1576
Akbar the great Conquest of Gujarat Cotton fields, flourishing seaports, trade with European merchants. Conquest of Bengal Trade links with south east Asia and China. Rich revenues to Mughal treasury Conquests of North west Kashmir, Kandahar, lower Sind(1591) Baluchistan (1595) Deccan Campaigns-1601 Berar, Khandesh, part of Ahmadnagar.
His empire stretched from Hind Kush mountains in the west to Brahmaputra in the east, Himalayas in the north to Godavari in the south.
Administration of Akbar 1. Central Administration Decision was final, word was law. Commander-in-chief of armed forces Supreme judge on all matters of justice. Sole right in making appointments, dismissal, promotion Council of ministers:- 1 Wazir/diwan Revenue department 1 Wazir/diwan Revenue department 2 Mir bakshi Military and head of mansabdars 2 Mir bakshi Military and head of mansabdars 3 Qazi Chief judge 3 Qazi Chief judge 4 Chief sadr Supervisor of royal household 4 Chief sadr Supervisor of royal household
Meetings in Diwan-i-khas For private audience
Diwan-i-Aam Provincial Administration Subas sarkars parganas villages Subhedar and diwan panchayat Common subjects
The mansabdari system Mansabdar-holder of a rank Every officer given a rank or mansab on the nature of job. Salary/jagirs given according to rank After his death, back to the king Cavalry, loyal trusted soldiers, royal body guards, palace guards, artillery.
Revenue System-Todar Mal’s bandobast Use of bamboo jarib to survey land 4 categories(times cultivated) Good, bad,middling Revenue based on average of past 10 years 1/3 rd was King’s share. Relief measures for the peasants.
Ibadat Khana – Hall of Prayer(1575) Invited leaders of other faiths to have discussions on matters related to religion. Issues declaration called the mazhar, which gave him the power to chose different interpretation of the Islamic law. Akbar interacting with religious scholars.
Akbar’s religion Sulh-i-Kul or universal peace. Formation of Din-i-llahi belief in one God Emperor as God’s representative on earth Rajput policy Treated them with respect Did not annex their kingdoms, if they recognized him as their overlord and paid him regular tribute. Social reforms. Prohibited sati, legalized widow remarriage. Discouraged child marriage. 14 yrs for girls and 16 for boys.
Educational reforms Study of secular subjects Translation department set up. Literature Akbarnama by Abul Fazl-fine Persian work Faizi, poet-laureate Raja Birbal-hindi Kavi Raj Ramacharitamanas written by Tulsidas books-written by calligraphists.