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The Rise of Islam Ms. Jerome Chapter 11. Spread of Islam from inception to present.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Islam Ms. Jerome Chapter 11. Spread of Islam from inception to present."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Islam Ms. Jerome Chapter 11

2 Spread of Islam from inception to present

3 The Birthplace of a New World Religion Islam arose in the Arabian peninsula Extremely tribal—religious melting pot Reflected the social and cultural conditions of its homeland The epicenter of post classical long distance trade. Arabia—important link in trade between China and India in the east and Persia nad Byzantium in the west

4 Muhammad and His Message Muhammad born 570 –merchant family in Mecca By 30 Muhammad had established himself as a merchant Arabian Peninsula was diverse— polytheism, Judaism etc. Age 40- spiritual transformation. ◦ Experienced visions understood as revelations from Allah – archangel Gabriel ◦ Believed in one true God

5 Quran Muslims compiled the versions of Muhammad’s revelations in the Quran “recitation” It is the authority of Muslim religious doctrine Allah the same omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent and exclusive deity as the Jews’ Yahweh and Christians’ God

6 Muhammad’s Migration to Medina Conflict with ruling elite in Mecca Allah as only divine power challenged the common polytheism Muhammad also denounced greed as a moral wickedness and idolatry 622 under mounting pressure, Muhammad fled to Yathrib later called Medina “the city of the prophet” Hirja- the migration to Medina is the starting point on Islamic calendar

7 Islam in Arabia 629 Muhammad wished to return to Mecca In 630 with followers attacked mecca and conquered the city Imposed a government dedicated to Allah Destroyed pagan shrines-replaced with mosques Through multiple campaigns, by 632 (Muhammad’s death) most of Arabia under Islamic control

8 5 Pillars 1. Allah the only god and Muhammad as prophet 2. Pray to Allah daily facing Mecca 3. Observe a fast during the daylight hours during Ramadan 4. Contribution of alms for the weak and poor 5. To honor Muhammad’s visit to Mecca in 629, must undertake the hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca

9 Jihad “struggle” Spiritual and moral obligation on Muslims- to conquer vice and evil Muslims to struggle against ignorance and unbelief by spreading the word of Islam and seeking conversions The obligation to take the sword and wage war against unbelievers who threaten Islam

10 Sharia Islamic Holy Law Emerged after Muhammad Detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life From marriage and family life to slavery, inheritance, business and commercial relationship Islam—not just a religion, a way of life

11 Expansion of Islam NO provision for a successor Advisors selected Abu Bakr –Muhammad’s father in law— “caliph” (deputy) Sunni. Many people wanted Ali—Muhammad’s son in law to be leader. Shia A Lieutenant of Muhammad, not a prophet himself Abu Bakr became head of state for the Islamic community and umma (community of the faithful) Went on the offensive and claimed much of the region to accept Islam

12 Abu Bakr (Sunni) Ali (Shia)

13 Divided Islam Struggle to name successors intensified Sunni and Shia Sects emerged Sunni Muslims: caliphs were rightful political and military leaders, chosen by the Islamic community (Abu Bakr a rightly guided Caliph) Shia Muslims: leaders should be blood relatives of Muhammad, descended from Ali and his son Husayn (cousin and son in law of Muhammad)  Ali served as Caliph from ; assassinated along with much of his family line

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15 Expanding Islam Between , Muslim forces seized Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, North Africa In 711 conquered northern India Between 711 and 718 crossed Strait of Gibraltar and conquered Iberian peninsula.

16 Umayyad Dynasty Post assassination of Ali from Sunni sect Temporarily solved problem of succession Umayyads ranked among most prominent of the Meccan merchant clans Moved capital to Damascus in Syria— central location Believed in Arab military aristocracy

17 Umayyad Dynasty

18 Policy Toward Conquered People Conquered Jews, Christians, Persians, Indians, Greeks, Mesopotamians etc. Allowed them to view own religious practices Imposed a jizya—tax on non Muslims Umayyads favored the Arab elites— caused resentment

19 Decline of Umayyad Caliphs became alienated form other Arabs Too devoted to luxurious living than leadership of the umma Fierce resistance of Shia and conquered peoples

20 Abbasid Dynasty Founder: Abu al-Abbas Leader of Persian rebellion vs. Umayyyad Dynasty Descendent of Muhammad’s uncle He was Sunni he allied with Shias and with non Arab Muslims Seized control of Persia and Mesopotamia –shattered Umayyad forces in huge battle Founded Abbasid Dynasty

21 Abbasid Dynasty No special favor to Arabs Persians, Egyptians, Mesopotamians and others rose in wealth and power Adopted Persian governmental practices— introduced governors to rule Not a conquering dynasty Did not expand through conquest Dar al Islam (the community of Islam) expanded but not by the Abbasid dynasty  Merchants, others expanded it

22 Baghdad Central authority (capital Iraq) Became center of banking, commerce, crafts, industry, population

23 Abbasid Decline Civil War damaged Abbasid authority Disputes over succession became problem Provincial governors took advantage of disorder Abbasids became figureheads The dynasty would be extinguished at the hands of the Mongols in 1258


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