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To what extent was Sun Yat-sen responsible for the 1911 Revolution?

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1 To what extent was Sun Yat-sen responsible for the 1911 Revolution?
L/O – To evaluate the claim that Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary movement was the primary cause of the 1911 Revolution Dr. Sun Yat-sen

2 What was the ‘Double Ten’ Revolution?
On 10th October 1911 there was an uprising against the Qing government by soldiers in the city of Wuchang in Hubei province. They were led by members of the Tongmenhui or ‘Chinese United League’, a revolutionary political party created by Dr. Sun Yat-sen. The protests soon spread to other provinces, and by December almost 2/3 of China had declared independence. Sun Yat- sen was then declared Provisional President of the Republic of China on 29th December 1911. Q. Why do you think other provinces were so ready to declare independence? Why might they be upset with the Qing Court?

3 What was the ‘Double Ten’ Revolution?
The Qing Court failed to put down the revolts and was blackmailed by Yuan Shikai into appointing him as premier in full charge of the army and navy. Yuan could have used his modernised Beiyang Army to crush the revolutionaries but instead he negotiated with the rebels. Sun Yat-sen had no choice but to appoint Yuan as President. In return, Yuan agreed to force Emperor Puyi to abdicate. On 12th February 1912, the Qing Dynasty and 2,000 years of imperial rule ended. Yuan Shikai Emperor Puyi

4 Sun Yat-sen’s Early Life
Sun Yat-sen ( ) was born 12th November in Hsiang-shan, near Canton. He was one of four children and he studied a traditional Confucian education up until the age of 12. In 1879, Sun went to Honolulu (Hawaii) to live with his brother. He graduated from Oahu College in 1883 aged 17. He married in 1885 and returned to Hong Kong in time to witness China’s defeat in the Sino-French War of , becoming disgusted by the weakness of the Qing dynasty.

5 Radicalisation in Hong Kong
In 1887 he studied Medicine at the College for Medicine for Chinese in Hong Kong. He used the school as a HQ for his growing revolutionary activities. The efficiency of British colonial administration and orderliness in Hong Kong impressed Sun, in contrast to his birthplace. He began to realise that China needed drastic change. He moved to Macao in 1892, then Canton in 1893 where he made contacts with members of Secret Societies through his friend Cheng Shih-liang. Cheng Shih-liang

6 Rejecting the Path of Reform
By 1894, Sun was tempted to join other reformists and modernisers in China, writing a series of letters to Li Hongzhang, offering him his services and advice. He even travelled to Beijing, hoping to get an interview with Li but was unable to get an audience. This rejection and the decadence of Beijing strengthened his determination to overthrow the dynasty. Li Hongzhang

7 The Revive China Society
Sun went back to Hawaii in 1894, creating the ‘Revive China Society’. He hoped to recruit other overseas Chinese, secret societies and Christian converts. When the Sino-Japanese War broke out, he returned to Hong Kong and established a new HQ in February 1895. Members of the group took an oath: ‘expel the Manchus, restore the Chinese rule, and establish a federal republic’.

8 First Attempt at Revolution
In October 1895, Sun organised an uprising in Canton but it was discovered and 48 members died. He fled to Hong Kong but was banned from entering by the British, therefore he fled to Japan. At Yokohama he established a branch of the Revive China Society, making connections with Japanese sympathisers. He then went on to London in October 1896, hoping to recruit more overseas Chinese to his revolutionary cause.

9 A Lucky Kidnap! In London he was kidnapped by the Chinese Legation and held captive. The Qing government wanted him returned to China for execution. However the British government found out and the legation was forced to release him. It was a turning point for Sun. The story was all over the newspapers and Sun became an overnight celebrity, raising his profile amongst overseas Chinese.

10 The Three Principles of the People
He remained in England for 9 months, studying and developing his revolutionary theories. Here he developed his famous ‘Three Principles of the People’. China needed: People’s National Consciousness (Nationalism) People’s Rights (Democracy) People’s Livelihood (Socialism) Nationalism was needed to overthrow the Manchu and Imperialist yoke; Democracy to ensure rights for the people; and Socialism to regulate Capital and equalise land.

11 Clashes with the Moderate Reformers
Sun then went to Japan but was dismayed by the growth of his movement. Sun and his ‘Revive China Society’ clashed with Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao who had fled to Japan after the failed 1898 ‘100 Days Reform’. They set-up the ‘Emperor Protection Society’, a rival to Sun’s movement. Kang Youwei represented the movement for Constitutional change in China. He wanted China to be a Constitutional Monarchy however Sun’s supporters wanted to destroy the Qing dynasty completely and create a federal republic. Kang Youwei Liang Qichao

12 Second Attempt at Revolution
Despite the lack of widespread interest in his movement, Sun took advantage of the Boxer Rebellion to organise another uprising in Waichow, north of Hong Kong. Again, the plot was discovered and Sun was forced to flee to Taiwan. Here he befriended the Japanese governor, extending his connections further. Despite his plots failing, Sun’s popularity was rising and would soon sky-rocket due to one major event.

13 Growing Revolutionary Sentiment
The Boxer Rebellion ( ) completely discredited the Qing Court in the eyes of its people. Cixi and the Court was blamed personally for the disaster. Many Chinese realised that only complete removal of the Qing would ensure reforms. Young intellectuals like Tsou Jung who published the widely read ‘Revolutionary Army’ in 1903, called for revolution. Sun now became viewed as a patriotic, devoted revolutionary. Between he travelled constantly, growing his membership. Tsou Jung

14 The Chinese United League
Other revolutionary societies sprung up in China like the ‘Recovery Society’ of Ts’ai Yuan-p’ei in Shanghai and the ‘China Revival Society’ of Huang Hsing in Changsha. In 1905 Sun returned to Japan and persuaded other revolutionaries like Huang Hsing to unite, creating the ‘Chinese United League’ or Tongmenhui. The Tongmenhui accepted Sun’s ‘3 Principles’ as the philosophy of the Party and a 3-Stage Revolution was planned. Huang Hsing

15 Further Attempts at Revolution
By 1906, the Tongmenhui had 963 members with branches established all over China and internationally. The Party provided a unified central organisation and rallying point for all revolutionary forces in and outside of China. Between , a further nine uprisings were attempted, all ending in failure. The April 1911 Canton Uprising ended with the deaths of 72 members.

16 Planning the Wuchang Uprising
After the failed Canton Uprising, the Tongmenhui re-focused on the central provinces of Hubei and Hunan. In Hubei, they persuaded the ‘Common Advancement Society’ of returned students and the ‘Literary Society’ of Qing army soldiers to join with the Tongmenhui on 1st June 1911. Together they planned an uprising for October 1911, what would become known as the successful Wuchang Uprising.

17 Debate over Causes of the Revolution
The successful revolution was finally triggered by the Wuchang Uprising, led by members of Sun’s ‘Chinese United League’. Sun was seen as the father of the revolutionary movement and as such, has been given the credit for the successful revolution. However the actions of the Tongmenhui were only one cause amongst many for the Revolution. Any historical analysis of the Revolution needs to take into account other contributing, and maybe more significant, factors.

18 Long-term Causes of Revolution
Failure of Qing Leadership – Since mid-19th century, Chinese history was a record of national humiliation: Treaty of Nanjing 1842, Loss of Tributary States in 1880s/1890s, Boxer Protocol 1901 etc… The inability of the Qing to defend China led to rising calls for reform. Inability of the Dynasty to reform itself (1898, Late Qing) led to calls for revolution. Anti-Manchu Tradition – Anti-Qing feeling had never disappeared completely amongst Han Chinese who viewed the Qing as foreigners. The ‘Anti-Qing, Revive Ming’ feeling was kept alive by Secret Societies who inspired rebellions throughout the 19th century, including support for Sun Yat-sen.

19 Long-term Causes of Revolution
De-centralisation of Power – Since at least the Taiping Rebellion of 1850/60, the Qing Court began relying on provincial officials to uphold the power of the state. This dynamic drew power away from Peking and would disrupt Qing attempts to reform the country. Impact of Foreigners – Since 1840s, Foreign imperialism dominated China and disrupted the economy, undermining the Qing Court. Foreign political and religious ideas like Christianity, revolution, democracy, independence, human rights, freedom and equality disrupted Qing society and made the desire for change inevitable.

20 Medium-term Causes of Revolution
Sino-Japanese War – The defeat to Japan was a real catalyst for change. It embarrassed the Qing in the eyes of its own people and led to calls for more dramatic change, even amongst conservatives. Boxer Rebellion – Cixi and Qing Court blamed entirely for the disaster and completely discredited the dynasty. Made many reformers now consider revolutionaries like Sun. Indemnity put economic pressure on dynasty and many Southern & Central provinces had disobey the Qing Court, furthering the division between the Court and its provinces.

21 Medium-term Causes of Revolution
Resistance to Reform – One of the biggest problems was the resistance to reform. Self- Strengthening in 1860s-1895, the Days Reform and even the Late Qing Reforms all suffered opposition from elements within the Qing Dynasty. Cixi, the Imperial Court, Confucian Gentry, Scholars, Intellectuals and even the people failed to see the need for radical reform until it was too late. The failure to reform itself meant that radical Chinese reformers saw no alternative but revolution.

22 Short-term Causes of Revolution
Failure of Late Qing Reforms – The Late Qing Reforms and Constitutional Movement of increased the desire and anticipation for reform amongst the whole of society. When the reforms turned out to be insincere and discriminatory to Chinese, even conservative-minded Chinese scholars turned against the Qing. The creation of Provincial Assemblies in served as a catalyst for these frustrations, allowing independent-minded officials to challenge the Imperial Court without fear.

23 Trigger-Cause of Revolution
The Railway Protection Movement – Since 1895, many provinces in China had been constructing railways as a way to boost economic growth. Provinces had spent huge amounts of capital and foreign loans in order to benefit from this boom in transportation. In Spring 1911, the Qing government suddenly tried to ‘nationalise’ the main railway lines in order to centralise control.

24 Trigger-Cause of Revolution
Huge foreign loans were signed by the government in order to compensate provinces for this nationalisation. The provinces were against nationalisation – they had invested huge amounts and would lose all profits. However in June 1911, Guangdong only received 60% in compensation and Szechwan received hardly anything. The provinces were incensed! Gentry and merchants in Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong and Szechwan organised ‘Railway Protection Clubs’ and mobilised their Provincial Assemblies to protest to the Court. Pu Dianjun

25 Trigger-Cause of Revolution
In Szechwan, over 10,000 people staged a rally in Chengdu on 24th August 1911. The new governor, Chao Erh- feng, ordered the arrest of protest leaders and 32 died in the ensuing violence. Fighting broke out between the government and the people with one leader commenting: “Domestic politics is useless, and the government does not care for the people. To save the country there is no other way but revolution. We Szechwanese have already made proper preparation and would co-ordinate with other provinces for joint action!”

26 Trigger-Cause of Revolution
The Imperial Court immediately ordered part of the Hubei New Army to Szechwan to put down this revolt. This left the city of Wuchang vulnerable. Huang Hsing of the Tongmenhui realised this was the perfect time for revolution. A plan was made for an uprising in Wuchang at the end of October but a bomb went off on the 9th, alerting authorities. The uprising would finally begin on 10/10/11. Huang Hsing

27 Review - The Role of Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen was just one amongst many reformers in the period who wanted change in China. However Sun was different in that he formulated a set of revolutionary ideas and policies that appealed to other groups, creating a mass vehicle for change in the Tongmenhui. His connections amongst overseas Chinese, secret societies, Japanese sympathisers and Christian converts ensured that the Party was well funded and supported.

28 Review - The Role of Sun Yat-sen
His 3-principles of Nationalism, Democracy and Socialism appealed to many revolutionaries and made him the natural leader of the movement. After the Boxer Rebellion and failed Late Qing Reforms, many intellectuals became persuaded by the need for revolution and naturally turned to Sun and the Tongmenhui. It is fair to say that the revolutionary activities of Sun Yat-sen were a sufficient cause of the revolution but were they absolutely necessary? Would revolution have happened without Sun?

29 Evaluating Causes Explaining the causes of the 1911 Revolution is tricky as there are a number of contributing factors of varying importance including: Role of Sun Yat-sen & Tongmenhui Weaknesses of Qing Government Role of Foreign Imperialism and Ideas Boxer Protocol and its Consequencs Resentment of Late Qing Reforms Railway Recovery Movement Other Revolutionary and Reform Groups Accidential nature of the Revolution Role of Yuan Shikai You are now going to investigate these causes before writing an explanation of your own for the 1911 Revolution.

30 Classifying Causes As historians, we try to organise and arrange causes into a hierarchy of importance in order to decide which was the ‘ultimate cause’ or reason for an event. We can use different sorting methods to do this: 1. Content Causes Social/Cultural/Ideological Political Economic Religious Military TASK Using the Cause Cards, organise the causes into a series of diagrams, based on each of the methods on this page. 3. Role Causes Pre-Condition Catalyst Trigger 2. Time Causes Long-Term Medium-Term Short-Term Immediate-Term 4. Importance Causes Necessary (Absolute/Relative) Sufficient (Absolute/Relative)

31 Paper 3 - Exam Question 1 (2011)
To what extent was the 1911 ‘Double Ten’ Nationalist Revolution due to the revolutionary activities of Sun Yat- sen? (20 marks) Candidates should identify what they consider to be Sun Yixian’s (Sun Yat-sen’s) role in bringing about the 1911 “Double Ten” Nationalist Revolution in China. This may include: his time in exile; his ideas, Sun’s ideas were called the Three Principles of the People; the organizations he formed – the Revive China Society in 1894 and the Tongmenghui (T’ung-meng Hui) or Revolutionary Alliance in 1905 (other translations include United League or Combined League Society); various attempts at revolution which had his support, including Yellow Flower Hill in May Other factors which candidates may include: the weakness of the Qing government; the Boxer Protocol and its consequences; the Late Qing (Ch’ing) Reform Movement’s military, educational and constitutional reforms and growing resentment; the Railway Recovery Movement; the influence of other revolutionary groups in exile such as Kang Youwei (K’ang Yu-wei) and Liang Qichao (Liang Ch’i-ch’ao) and the Society to Protect the Emperor and the Society for Constitutional Reform, the Chinese Socialist Party and the New World Society and their publications; the accidental nature of how the 1911 “Double Ten” Nationalist Revolution actually started and gained support; and the role of Yuan Shikai (Yuan Shih-k’ai). Candidates will need to come to a conclusion that assesses the extent to which Sun’s activities contributed to the 1911 “Double Ten” Nationalist Revolution.

32 1-2 No understanding of question, Little or no structure, Unsupported generalisations 3-4 Little understanding of question, knowledge present but insufficient detail, Poorly substantiated assertions. 5-6 Some understanding of question, knowledge is limited in quality & quantity, question partially addressed. 7-8 Question generally understood, relevant knowledge present but unevenly applied, knowledge is narrative or descriptive in nature, may be limited argument/analysis, attempt at structure 9-11 Question is understood but not all implication considered, knowledge largely accurate, critical commentary/analysis may be present, events in context, clear structure 12-14 Clearly focused on question, relevant in-depth knowledge applied as evidence, in-depth analysis/critical commentary used but not consistent, historiography may be used to substantiate, synthesis present but not consistent 15-17 Clearly structured and focused, full awareness of question, may challenge question, accurate and detailed knowledge used convincingly to support analysis/critical commentary, historiography used effectively, synthesis is well-developed & supported by knowledge and analysis 18-20 As above but… with high degree of awareness of question, may challenge successfully, knowledge is extensive and accurately applied, evaluation is integrated into answer, synthesis & use of historiography highly developed

33 Did we meet our learning objective?
Plenary What were Sun Yat-sen’s biggest contributions to the Revolutionary Movement? Which events were the most significant catalysts for change in China? Which event led to the biggest growth for the revolutionary movement? At what point did revolution seem inevitable? What was the ‘trigger’ for the revolution? Could the revolution have happened without Sun Yat-sen? Did we meet our learning objective? L/O – To evaluate the claim that Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary movement was the primary cause of the 1911 Revolution

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