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Aaron Cintron Period: 3 April 23, 2012. Introduction Knowledge of papermaking helped to establish an Islamic caliphate and provided a better medium to.

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Presentation on theme: "Aaron Cintron Period: 3 April 23, 2012. Introduction Knowledge of papermaking helped to establish an Islamic caliphate and provided a better medium to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Aaron Cintron Period: 3 April 23, 2012

2 Introduction Knowledge of papermaking helped to establish an Islamic caliphate and provided a better medium to write on Maps, miniature paintings, and books became more common The Fihrist was a catalog of all the books that was compiled by Abu al-Faraj Muhammad al-Nadim It’s broken into 10 books, all on different things.

3 THE ORIGINS OF ISLAM

4 The Arabian Peninsula Before Muhammad Most people on the Arabian peninsula were farmers, sailors, and caravan traders. The “Empty Quarter” caused the southern areas to be isolated from the Arabian interior. Camel saddles boosted trade and led to the rise of caravan-cities. By 600, wheeled vehicles were replaced by pack camels and mules. Caravans spread different cultures around Mecca rapidly grew and prospered The Ka’ba was a very important cubical shrine

5 Muhammad in Mecca Muhammad was born in 570 and grew up an orphan Around 610 he began having revelations They continued until his death in 632 This was the start of Islam, the followers are called Muslims It appealed to people because his revelations included earlier messengers Some considered it more perfect than the bible

6 The Formation of Umma Muhammad and his followers fled to Medina in 622 His group and the locals merged to form an umma Umma- a community defined solely by acceptance of Islam and Muhammad as the messenger Mecca became weak and welcomed Muhammad and his followers back Muhammad became very popular After Muhammad’s death, they designated Abu Bakr as the first caliph

7 Muhammad’s practices were continued The Five Pillars of Islam: – One God and Muhammad is his messenger – Prayer 5 times a day – Fasting during Ramadan – Paying alms – Pilgrimage to Mecca In 650, a compilation of Muhammad’s revelations was created called the Quran

8 After the assassination of the third caliph, a civil war broke out Ali, Muhammad’s first cousin took over He was killed by Mu’awiya, and the Umayyad Caliphate began Shi’ites- Muslims that believe Ali was the rightful heir Sunnis- consider the caliphs to be Imams Another small faction was born, Kharijites were followers of Ali

9 THE RISE AND FALL OF THE CALIPHATE,

10 The Islamic Conquests, Under the second caliph Umar, Arab armies began to conquer They took Syria in 636 and Egypt in Arabs continued to expand and conquer Islam also spread peacefully through trade Soldiers received regular pay, treasure, and residence in military camps No evidence of missionary efforts during these conquests

11 The Umayyad and Early Abbasid Caliphates, Umayyad presided over an Arab realm rather than a religious empire Adopted Byzantine and Sasanid administrative practices Replaced officials with Muslims, and introduced Muslim gold and silver coins Umayyad caliphate fell in 750 because of unrest After a large rebellion, the Abbas took over and founded the Abbasid caliphate

12 Theology and religious law were large concerns Some caliphs attempted to translate works into Arabic Adopted Sasanid practices Many cultures met and many literary works were released Translation of Aristotle, founding of new ideas, and splendor of court led to a “golden age” Gradual conversion to Islam accelerated

13 Political Fragmentation, Abbasid decline had a few factors: – Too large for communication and transportation – Revolts became very common – Financial crisis Mamluks- Turkish slaves purchased by caliphs to make an army – Very powerful, but expensive – Took over the new capital at Samarra

14 Abbasid caliph fell under control of the Shi’ite Buyid family Believed the last Imam would return at the end of time, so they didn’t appoint a caliph Samanids established a court in Bukhara Persian literature rose to challenge Arabic dominance Ghana became wealthy due to trade of gold Fatimids took over and transformed Egypt

15 Umayyad Spain blended with Roman, Germanic, and Jewish traditions Culture continued to flourish – Judah Halevi, Maimonides, Ibn Rushd, and Ibn Hazm all wrote great works during this time Samanids, Fatimids, and Spanish Umayyads all coincided with Abbasid decline Ulama- Arabic for “people with religious knowledge” worked to keep the Umma together

16 Assault From Within and Without, Seljuk family established a Turkish Muslim state Turks expanded and took Anatolia Action wasn’t taken to stop Shi’ite and Sunni fighting The Crusaders fought with the Turks Fatimid dynasty fell in 1171 Mongol attacks devastated the Islamic world and hurried changes

17 ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION The Islamic world underwent evolution in law, social structure, and religious structure.

18 Law and Dogma Shari’a- the law of Islam Islam had no legal system under Muhammad Some laws began to develop Hadith- Reports on the exact words and deeds of Muhammad; some were fake These were compiled into books and used to improve the Shari’a These standards were expected to be followed The Sunnis had 6 books; Shi’ites had 4

19 Converts and Cities Many people converted to Islam – Few spoke Arabic, they only knew the prayers People had to learn about Islam by themselves, so they migrated Urbanization greatly accelerated The consumer market, irrigation, and trade flourished Science and technology also flourished – Health, astronomy, and math improved

20 Islam, Women, and Slaves Women seldom traveled, and were always covered They were barred from public roles Some women were literate They had greater freedom under Islam – Inherited property and retained it in marriage, could divorce, could use birth control, could testify in court Slavery was allowed, but not other Muslims, Jews, Christians, or Zoroastrians – P.O.W.’s were an exception

21 The Recentering of Islam The caliphate became decentralized, and factions arose Scholars created madrasas(religious colleges) Sufi brotherhoods- Mystic groups that sought to be unified with God through rituals and training The end of the Abbasid caliphate enhanced religious centrality of Mecca

22 Learning Objectives After this power point you should know: – How Islam originated, and how other traditions influenced it’s development – How Islamic society developed secular rule, and how the institution of the caliphate evolved over time – What role the Quran and the hadith had in Muslim law and society – What influence Islam exerted on women, families, and slavery – How Islamic life differed in urban and rural areas


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