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Impact of the Cold War and Decolonization from

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1 Impact of the Cold War and Decolonization from 1945 - 1989
SSWH19 The student will demonstrate an understanding of the global social, economic, and political impact of the Cold War and decolonization from 1945 to 1989. a. Analyze the revolutionary movements in India (Gandhi, Nehru), China (Mao Zedong, Chiang Kai-shek), and Ghana. b. Describe the formation of the state of Israel. c. Explain the arms race; include development of the hydrogen bomb (1954) and SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, 1972). d. Compare and contrast the reforms of Khrushchev and Gorbachev. e. Analyze efforts in the pursuit of freedom; include anti-apartheid, Tiananmen Square, and the fall of the Berlin Wall.

2 Revolution in India p. 952 At the end of World War II, British India’s Muslim and Hindus were bitterly divided Leaders realized British India would have to be divided into two countries Hindu – India Muslim- Pakistan August 15, 1947 India & Pakistan became independent

3 Revolution in India Continued…
Millions of Hindus and Muslims fled across the new borders As a result of violence from these mass migrations, more than a million people were killed January 30, Mohandas Gandhi was assassinated as he was going to morning prayer Indian National Congress began to govern led by Jawaharlal Nehru– Nehru had worked closely with Gandhi Goal was a parliamentary government and a moderate socialist economy Industrial production almost tripled between 1950 & 1965 After Nehru’s death, Congress elected his daughter Indira Gandhi, not related to Mohandas, as prime minister

4 Civil War In China p. 941 By 1945, two Chinese governments existed
Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-Shek, based in southern and central China, supported by the U.S. Communist government under leadership of Mao Zedong, based in North China 1945 full scale war broke out Millions of peasants were attracted to the Communists promises of land By Spring 1949, the People’s Liberation army had defeated the Nationalists

5 Creation of the State of Israel p. 929 – 930
In the years between the two world wars many Jews had immigrated to Palestine believing it to be their promised land. Tensions between Jews & Arabs had intensified during the 1930’s Following the Holocaust, sympathy for the Jewish cause grew 1948- UN resolution divided Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state The Jews in Palestine proclaimed the state of Israel on May 14, 1948 Arab neighbors saw the new state as a betrayal of the Palestinian people, most of whom were Muslims

6 Arms Race p. 850 Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949
United States & the Soviet Union were involved in a growing arms race, in which both countries built up their armies & weapons. In the early 1950’s the Soviet Union and US developed the hydrogen bomb By mid 1950’s both had developed intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM’s) capable of sending bombs anywhere.

7 Arms Race Continued… 1957- Soviet Union send Sputnik I, the first satellite to orbit the earth SALT- Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty was an agreement signed in 1972 to impose restraints on existing and future strategic systems

8 Reforms of Khrushchev New General Secretary of the Communist Party
Took steps to undo some of the worst features of Stalin’s era Loosened government control of literary works Put more emphasis on producing consumer goods Attempted to increase agricultural output Foreign policy failures led him to be voted out of office while he was on vacation in 1964

9 Reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev
A new era began in 1985 when he was chosen to lead the Soviet Union Began a new era of glasnost, or openness in discussions of the Soviet problems Perestroika- restructuring Market economy- limited free enterprise & some private property Set up elected Parliament Allowed non-Communist parties to organize Created a new state presidency March Gorbachev became the Soviet Union’s first and last President

10 Efforts in the pursuit of freedom

11 Anti – Apartheid Movement p. 922
By the 1950’s, South African whites (descendents of the Dutch, known as Afrikaners) Result was a system of racial segregation known as apartheid (“apartness”) Blacks demonstrated against the apartheid laws, but the white government brutally repressed the demonstrators 69 people were killed in 1960 when police opened fire on a march in Sharpeville (2/3 of those killed were shot in the back) Nelson Mandela, leader of the African National Congress, was arrested in 1962. In 1977, the UN urged nations to enforce sanctions against South Africa until apartheid was lifted. Under apartheid, All citizens were classified by race with their race stamped on their ID. In 1994, South Africa held its first all-race elections




15 Tiananmen Square p. 940 Spring 1989, crowds of students, workers & journalists filled Tiananmen Square in Beijing day after day to demonstrate in favor of a democratic government in China Some students waged a hunger strike and others carried posters calling for democracy To China’s elderly rulers, calls for democracy were a threat to the dominant role that the Communist Party had played in China since 1949 June 3, 1989 Chinese Army moved into the square Soldiers carrying automatic rifles fired into the unarmed crowds Tanks & troops moved in and surrounded the remaining students. At 5:30 in the morning, the mayor of Beijing announces that Tiananmen Square had been handed back to the people Killing of unarmed citizens continued At least 500 civilians were killed, perhaps as many as 2000 The Movement for democracy in China had ended

16 Fall of the Berlin Wall p. 874
1988- President Ronald Reagan traveled to West Berlin Challenged Mikhail Gorbachev, leader of the Soviet bloc, to tear down this wall East Germany’s communist leaders refused to remove the wall Summer 1989, thousands of East Germans fled their country while hundreds of thousands took to the streets to demand their resignation of the hard line Communist leader November 9, 1989 a new East German government opened the wall and allowed citizens to travel freely between West and East Berlin Next day, government workers began to knock down the wall. They were soon joined by thousands of West & East Berliners who used sledgehammers and crowbars to rip apart the Cold War symbol. In 1990, West and East Germany became a single nation and Berlin was once again the capital.

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