2 Long term Causes of the French Revolution Political Countries were ruled by absolutism – the monarch had absolute control over the government – Divine Right of KingsSuccessful Revolutions – England’s Glorious Revolution and the American RevolutionThe Enlightenment (Age of Reason) - began to ask if natural laws might also apply to human beings – more rights/freedoms
3 What the King DidAppointed the Intendants, the “petty tyrants” who governed France’s 30 districtsAppointed the people who would collect his taxes and carry out his lawsControlled justice by appointing judgesControlled the militaryCould imprison anyone at any time for any reason (blank warrants of arrest were called lettres de cachet)Levied all taxes and decided how to spend the moneyMade all lawsMade decisions regarding war and peace
5 Social Causes In France, people were divided into three estates First Estate – 1% - no taxesHigh-ranking members of the ChurchPrivileged classLow-ranking?Second Estate – 2% - no taxesNobilityThird Estate – 97% - pay taxesEveryone else – from peasants in the countryside to wealthy bourgeoisie merchants in the citiesUnprivileged class
6 The Three Estates Estate Population Privileges Exemptions Burdens FirstCirca 130,000High-ranking clergyCollected the titheCensorship of the pressControl of educationKept records of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Catholic faith held honored position of being the state religion (practiced by monarch and nobility)Owned 20% of the landPaid no taxesSubject to Church law rather than civil lawMoral obligation (rather than legal obligation) to assist the poor and needySupport the monarchy and Old RegimeSecondCirca 110,000NoblesCollected taxes in the form of feudal duesMonopolized military and state appointmentsThirdCirca 25,000,000Everyone else: artisans, bourgeoisie, city workers, merchants, peasants, etc., along with many parish priestsNonePaid all taxesTithe (Church tax)Octrot (tax on goods brought into cities)Corvée (forced road work)Capitation (poll tax)Vingtiéme (income tax)Gabelle (salt tax)Taille (land tax)Feudal dues for use of local manor’s winepress, oven, etc.
7 Economic Causes France’s economy was based primarily on agriculture Peasant farmers of France bore the burden of taxation – poor harvest?Bourgeoisie (middle class) often managed to gather wealthBut were upset that they paid taxes while nobles did not
8 France Is BankruptThe king (Louis XVI) lavished money on himself and Queen Marie AntoinetteGovernment found its funds depleted as a result of warsIncluding the funding of the American RevolutionDeficit spending – a government spending more money than it takes in from tax revenuesPrivileged classes would not submit to being taxed
11 Short-term Causes of the French Revolution EconomicCaused by deficit spendingFinancial ministers (Turgot, Necker, Calonne) proposed changesBut these were rejectedAssembly of Notables voted down taxation for the nobility in 1787SocialGreat FearWorst famine in memoryHungry, impoverished peasants feared that nobles at Estates-General were seeking greater privilegesAttacks on nobles occurred throughout the country in 1789PoliticalLouis XVI had no choice but to call for a meeting of the Estates-General to find a solution to the bankruptcy problemAll three estatesHad not met since 1614Set in motion a series of events which resulted in the abolition of the monarchy and a completely new socio-political system for France
12 Sherman ReadingsLefebvre and Sutherland in Chap. 9 of Sherman - small groups and develop an interpretation of the primary cause of the French Revolution: 1)social inequality, 2)political struggle between monarchy and nobles, 3)Enlightenment ideas, 4)economic instability.
13 Group project 1. Divide students into two large groups. 2. Group 1 will be investigating the various stages of the revolution: Liberal Phase ( ), Radicalization ( ), Reign of Terror ( ), Thermidor and Directory ( ). These students will be using the text, Chap. 9 in Sherman, chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/, and any other sources to provide a bird’s eye view of each phase of the revolution: causes, key issues, conflicts, major groups and leaders, accomplishments. The group’s work will be presented to the class for 10 minutes using visual aids.2. Group 2 will be describing and analyzing the involvement of a social order in the revolution ( ) and the impact of the revolution on this group (using similar sources): women, peasants, bourgeoisie, clergy, nobles, artisans/workers. Student findings will be presented with 10 minutes for each group and usual appropriate visuals.
14 Preparing for the Estates-General Financial crisis forces Louis XVI to call a meeting(election) – First meeting in 175 yearsWinter ofMembers of the estates elected representativesVoting was conducted by estateEach estate had one voteFirst and Second Estates could operate as a bloc to stop the Third Estate from having its way3rd Estate wanted voting based on population
16 Tennis Court OathOn June 23, 1789, Louis XVI relented. He ordered the three estates to meet together as the National Assembly and vote, by population, on a constitution for France.The Third Estate relocated to a nearby tennis court where its members vowed to stay together and create a written constitution for France.Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting.The Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly.
18 The Tennis Court Oath“The National Assembly, considering that it has been summoned to establish the constitution of the kingdom, to effect the regeneration of the public order, and to maintain the true principles of monarchy; that nothing can prevent it from continuing its deliberations in whatever place it may be forced to establish itself; and, finally, that wheresoever its members are assembled, there is the National Assembly;“Decrees that all members of this Assembly shall immediately take a solemn oath not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon firm foundations; and that, the said oath taken, all members and each one of them individually shall ratify this steadfast resolution by signature.”
19 Review Questions 1. What was the Old Regime? 2. How does an absolute monarchy (absolutism) operate?3. Describe the size, privileges, exemptions, and burdens of the three estates.4. What is deficit spending?5. Describe the type of thinking used by the philosophes.6. What were the underlying (long-term) causes of the French Revolution?7. What were the immediate (short-term) causes of the French Revolution?8. Explain the debate over voting which occurred in the Estates-General.9. What was the Tennis Court Oath?
20 Four Stages (Periods) of the French Revolution National Assembly ( )Legislative Assembly ( )Convention ( )Directory ( )
21 National Assembly (1789-1791) (Liberal) Louis XVI did not actually want a written constitutionWhen news of his plan to use military force against the National Assembly reached Paris on July 14, 1789, people stormed the Bastille
22 Uprising in Paris People of Paris seized weapons from the Bastille July 14, 1789Parisians organized their own government which they called the CommuneSmall groups – factions – competed to control the city of ParisUprising spread throughout FranceNobles were attacked (Great Fear)Records of feudal dues and owed taxes were destroyedMany nobles fled the country – became known as émigrésLouis XVI was forced to fly the new tricolor flag of France
24 Changes under the National Assembly Abolishment of guilds and labor unionsAbolition of special privileges and Feudal SystemConstitution of 1791Declaration of the Rights of ManEquality before the law (for men)Many nobles left France and became known as émigrésReforms in local government(83 equal Departments)Taxes levied based on the ability to pay
25 Declaration of the Rights of Man Freedom of religionFreedom of speechFreedom of the pressGuaranteed property rights“Liberty, equality, fraternity!”Right of the people to create lawsRight to a fair trial
26 Goodbye, Versailles! Adieu, Versailles! Parisian Commune feared that Louis XVI would have foreign troops invade France to put down the rebellionLouis XVI’s wife, Marie Antoinette, was the sister of the Austrian emperorA group of women attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789 (October Days)Forced royal family to relocate to Paris along with National Assembly - Tuileries Palace
29 Declaration of the Rights of Woman Journalist Olympe de Gouges argued in her Declaration of the Rights of Woman that women are equal citizens and should benefit from governmental reforms just as men did.Madame Jeanne Roland also served as a leader in the women’s rights movement, and was able to heavily influence her husband (a government official).Women did gain some rights during the French Revolution, but these were designed for purposes other than liberating women.Women could inherit property, but only because doing so weakened feudalism and reduced wealth among the upper classes.Divorce became easier, but only to weaken the Church’s control over marriage.
30 End of Special Privileges Church lands were seized, divided, and sold to peasants – Paper Currency (assignats) – Leads to Inflation?Civil Constitution of the Clergy required that Church officials be elected by the people, with salaries paid by the government½ of Church officials fled the country rather than swear allegiance to this
31 Constitution of 1791 Democratic features - Conservative France became a limited monarchyKing became merely the head of stateAll laws were created by the Legislative AssemblyFeudalism was abolished – Capitalism and Laissez-faireUndemocratic featuresVoting was limited to taxpayersOffices were reserved for property owners (½ million)- BourgeoisieThis new government became known as the Legislative Assembly
32 Stage 2 Legislative Assembly (1791-1792) Royal family sought help from AustriaIn June, 1791, they were caught trying to escape to Austria (flight to Varennes)Nobles who fled the revolution lived abroad as émigrés – Hoped to get foreign helpChurch officials wanted Church lands, rights, and privileges restoredChamps de Mars Massacre (July/1791) – 50 protestors are killedPolitical parties, representing different interests, emergedGirondists – liberals that wanted to change within the systemJacobins – radicals that favored more extreme change
34 Opposition to the New Government European monarchs feared that revolution would spread to their own countriesFrance was invaded by Austrian and Prussian troops – Declaration of Pillnitz – King wants warVoters began electing representatives for a new convention which would write a republican constitution for FranceMeanwhile, thousands of nobles were executed under the suspicion that they were conspirators in the foreign invasion
35 Stage 3 Convention (1792-1795) (Radical) On September 22, 1792, the Convention met for the first timeEstablished the First French Republic (Year 1)Faced domestic opposition and strifeGirondists were moderates who represented the rich middle class of the provincesJacobins (led by Marat, Danton, and Robespierre) represented workersFaced opposition from abroadAustria, England, Holland, Prussia, Sardinia, and Spain formed a Coalition invading France
36 Abolishment of the Monarchy The Convention abolished the monarchyAs long as the royal family lived, the monarchy could be restored – Other countries threaten the revolutionaries with violence if they harm royal familyPut the royal couple on trial for treasonConvictions were a foregone conclusionLouis XVI was guillotined on January 21, 1793Marie Antoinette was guillotined on October 16, 1793Daughter Marie-Thérèse was allowed to go to Vienna in 1795Son Louis-Charles, a.k.a. Louis XVII (lived ) was beaten and mistreated until he died in prison
39 The three most memorable Jacobins were Georges Danton, Maximilien Robespierre, and Jean-Paul Marat. Because of a debilitating illness, Marat was eventually forced to work from home. He was assassinated (in the tub while taking a medicinal bath) by Charlotte Corday, a Girondist sympathizer, in July, 1793.The Death of Marat by Jacques-Louis David
40 Reign of Terror: September 5, 1793-July 27, 1794 Military DraftDespite military successes (acquire land), the Convention continued to face problems domesticallyDanton and his Jacobin political party came to dominate French politics – eliminate GirondistsCommittee of Public SafetyHeaded by Danton (and later Robespierre)Approximately 15,000 people died on the guillotineMost were workers and peasants
43 End of the Reign of Terror Eventually, even Georges Danton wanted to end the executionsThis resulted in Danton being tried and executed for treasonRobespierre became leader of the Committee of Public SafetyHe continued the executionsConvention came to blame Robespierre for the Reign of TerrorJuly 27, 1794 – ended the Reign of TerrorConvention sent Robespierre and other members of the Committee of Public Safety to the guillotine
44 Stage 4 Government under the Directory 5 directors appointed by the LegislatureExecutiveLower house (500 members) proposed lawsUpper house (250 members) voted on these laws2/3 of the Legislature would initially be filled by members of the ConventionLegislatureGirondists (middle-class party) had defeated the Jacobins (working- and peasant-class party)Girondists’ constitution stated that suffrage (the right to vote), as well as the right to hold office, were limited to property ownersQualifications
45 Other Parting Reforms Passed by the Convention Adopted the metric systemDealt the final blow to feudalism by abolishing primogeniture (the system whereby the oldest son inherited all of his father’s estate)Drew up a comprehensive system of lawsEnded debt imprisonmentEnded slavery in France’s coloniesEstablished a nationwide system of public education
46 Directory ( )The Directory suffered from corruption and poor administration.The people of France grew poorer and more frustrated with their government.Despite, or perhaps because of, these struggles, the French developed a strong feeling of nationalism – they were proud of their country and devoted to it.National pride was fueled by military successes.It would be a military leader – Napoleon Bonaparte, coming to power through a coup d’état – who would end the ten-year period ( ) known as the French Revolution.
47 Review Questions 1. What Paris building was stormed on July 14, 1789? 2. What human rights were established in France by the Declaration of the Rights of Man?3. How did Olympe de Gouges fight for women’s rights?4. What were émigrés, and why did French revolutionaries view them as a threat?5. Name and describe the two political parties that competed for power in revolutionary France.6. What was the Committee of Public Safety?7. Describe the Reign of Terror and explain how it eventually came to an end.8. Were the “excesses” of the French Revolution justified? Why or why not?9. Looking back at the first half of 1789, could the French Revolution have been avoided? If so, how?
48 Napoleon’s Rise to Power Napoleon Bonaparte, ruthlessly ambitious, rose from army captain to ruler of France in a very short time. He took advantage of the turmoil of the French Revolution.Napoleon, brilliant military leaderIn charge of French interior at 26Invaded Italy and EgyptDefeat by Admiral Horatio Nelson kept from newspapersBecame national heroOpportunities for GloryNapoleon Seizes PowerDirectory weak and ineffectiveFear of royalists and of European oppositionNovember 1799 coup d’étatFrance to be led by ConsulateNapoleon voted first consul, in effect a dictatorNapoleon promised order and stability, pledging to uphold key reforms. The French gave up some freedoms for peace and prosperity.
49 Emperor Napoleon’s Policies Church-State RelationsAntireligious nature of French Revolution overConcordat recognized influence of Roman Catholic ChurchEconomic ReformsEstablished the Bank of France to regulate economyMore efficient tax-collection systemLegal and EducationalNapoleonic Code developedOrder and authority over individual rightsSchools for government and military positionsLegacy—Age of NapoleonDemocratic ideasEquality before law, representative systemSpread of nationalism
50 Continental System The Peninsular War “Nation of shopkeepers,” Great Britain continued to defy NapoleonBlockade prohibited French or allied ships from trade with BritainBritain required ships from neutral countries to stop in British portsContinental SystemTroops to Portugal and SpainSpanish people revolted in 1808Great Britain stepped in to helpGuerrilla war with Spanish kept French busyNapoleon finally pulled out of SpainThe Peninsular War
51 Napoleon Dominates Europe Mastered Most of EuropeThrough treaties, alliances, and victories in battleControlled much of Europe by 1812Free of ControlGreat Britain remained an enemySweden, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire escaped Bonaparte’s gripRewarded RelativesRelatives put in power; brothers on thrones of Holland, Naples, and SicilySisters and stepson held powerful positions
54 Disaster and DefeatPortugalNapoleon surprised by inability to control PortugalPeninsular campaign was a failureRussiaCzar Nicholas I didn’t like French troops on western borderRussia hurt by Continental System; country needed importsCostly MistakeNapoleon turned east in 1812Hoped to teach Russia a lesson
56 The Russian Campaign Napoleon and army of 600,000 troops June 1812Napoleon and army of 600,000 troopsMarched across Russian borderFrench ArmyNew recruits with no loyaltySupplies lost or spoiledDisease, desertion, and hungerNo One to FightRussian troops pulled eastFrench victory at Borodino, but Russian army still strongPushed to Moscow but found city in flamesRetreat HomewardRuined city, no winter suppliesStarvation and freezing temperatures decimated armyOnly 94,000 men survived
57 Defeat and Exile to Elba Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain allied against FranceNapoleon raised another army, but troops inexperiencedIn October 1813 Napoleon defeated at Battle of the Nations near LeipzigIn March 1814, victorious allies entered Paris.Terms of surrender—Napoleon gave up throne and went into exile on tiny island of Elba
58 The Last CampaignsThe Hundred DaysFrench monarchy restored with King Louis XVIIIKing unpopular; Napoleon returns after year in exileLouis panicked and fled; Napoleon declared outlaw by alliesParis cheered Napoleon’s returnBrief period of renewed glory-the Hundred Days
59 The Last Campaigns Duke of Wellington led final confrontation Battle of WaterlooBritish and Prussian armiesCrushing defeat for NapoleonEnd of the Napoleonic WarsTried to escape capture, sent to exile in Saint HelenaVolcanic island in South AtlanticRemained imprisoned for six yearsDied at 51; cause of death never determinedNapoleon’s Final Days