Presentation on theme: "Alan Brinkley, American History 14/e Chapter 3 Society and Culture in Provincial America."— Presentation transcript:
Alan Brinkley, American History 14/e Chapter 3 Society and Culture in Provincial America
The Colonial Population America in 1700
Growth and Diversity 1. 1700–1750—colonial population rose from 250,000 to over two million 1. Much growth through natural increase. Exceptional longevity in New England 2. Large influx of non-English Europeans
Scots-Irish Flee English Oppression 1. Largest non-English group 2. The Scots fled England for Ireland, then the Scots-Irish came to North America 3. Concentrated on the Pennsylvania frontier
Germans Search for a Better Life 1. First waves similar to Quakers and sought religious toleration 2. Later waves sought to improve their material condition 3. Admired as peaceful, hard-working farmers 4. Tried to preserve German language and customs 5. Aroused the prejudice of English neighbors 6. Scots-Irish and Germans spread into Shenandoah Valley
Convict Settlers 1. Transportation Act of 1718 allowed judges to send convicted felons to American colonies 2. 50,000 convicts to America, 1718–1775 Some felons were dangerous criminals Most had committed minor crimes against property Life difficult for transported convicts
Map 5-1 p79 Immigration Groups - 1775 America was already a nation of diverse nationalities in the colonial period. This map shows the great variety of immigrant groups, especially in Pennsylvania and New York. It also illustrates the tendency of later arrivals, particularly the Scots-Irish, to push into the backcountry.
The Colonial Population 1. From 250,000 in 1700 2. To 2.8 millions by 1780 The Non-Indian Population of North America, 1700-1780
The Spanish Borderlands, ca. 1770
The Colonial Population 1. Indentured Servitude Origins Realities of Indentured Servitude Indenture Contract of Sarah Green (click to read)
Economic Transformation 1. Long-term period of economic and population growth 2. Colonial manufacture or trade of timber, sugar, hats, and iron restricted 3. More diverse economy in the North (factory & manufacturing, shipping & trade) 4. Trade was mainly with England and West Indies; little with Africa
Distinct Economic Identities – 18 th Century 1.The northern colonies: grew grain and raised cattle harvested timber and fish built ships. 2.The Chesapeake colonies and North Carolina: heavily dependent on tobacco 3.Southernmost colonies grew: mostly rice and indigo. Cotton, so important to the southern economy in the nineteenth century, had not yet emerged as a major crop.
The Rise of Colonial Commerce Triangular Trade
Birth of a Consumer Society 1. English mass-production of consumer goods stimulated rise in colonial imports ( see Family Life 1680-1720 ) see Family Life 1680-1720 see Family Life 1680-1720 2. Americans built up large debts to English merchants to finance increased imports 3. Trade between colonies increased Intercostal tradeIntercostal trade 4. Eroded regional and local identities
The Impact of European Ideas on American Culture 1. Rapid change in eighteenth-century colonies 2. Growth of urban cosmopolitan culture 3. Aggressive participation in consumption
Patterns of Society Wealth Distribution in Colonial Cities, 1687-1771
Selling tobacco (American Heritage) The Colonial Economies 1. The Southern Economy TobaccoTobacco RiceRice IndigoIndigo 20
Southern Plantation Economy
Charleston, South Carolina Founded in 1680, Charleston grew to become the bustling seaport pictured in this drawing done in the 1730s. Charleston was by then the largest city in the mostly rural southern colonies. It flourished as a seaport for the shipment to England of slave-grown Carolina rice. The Southern Colonies
The Southern Transformation 1. First slave ship arrived in North America, 1619 (Jamestown) 2. The Beginnings of Slavery in British America The Middle Passage The Middle Passage Growing Slave Population Growing Slave Population Slave Codes (see Virginia Slave Codes) Slave Codes (see Virginia Slave Codes)see Virginia Slave Codessee Virginia Slave Codes
Virginia Slave Code (17 th – 18 th Century) 1662 - ACT XII WHEREAS some doubts have arrisen whether children get by any Englishman upon a negro woman should be slave or ffree, Be it therefore enacted and declared by this present grand assembly, that all children borne in this country shalbe held bond or free only according to the condition of the mother… SOURCE: William Waller Hening, Laws of Virginia, 1619-1792 (1823), I-III. SOURCE: William Waller Hening, Laws of Virginia, 1619-1792 (1823), I-III.
Virginia Slave Code (17 th – 18 th Century) 1680 - ACT X …it is hereby enacted by the authority aforesaid, that from and after the publication of this law, it shall not be lawfull for any negrow or other slave to carry or arme himselfe with any club, staffe, gunn, sword or any other weapon of defence or offence, nor to goe or depart from of his masters ground without a certificate from his master, mistris or overseer, and such permission not to be granted but upon perticuler and necessary occasions; and every negroe or slave soe offending not haveing a certificate as aforesaid shalbe sent to the next constable, who is hereby enjoyned and required to give the said negroe twenty lashes on his bare back well layd on, and soe sent home to his said master, mistris, or overseer. And it is further enacted by the authority aforesaid that if any negroe or other slave shall presume to lift up his hand in opposition against any christian, shall for every such offence, upon due proffe made thereof by the oath of the party before a magistrate, have and receive thirty lashes on his bare back well laid on....
Virginia Slave Code (17 th – 18 th Century) 1705... XXXIV. And if any slave resist his master, or owner, or other person, by his or her order, correcting such slave, and shall happen to be killed in such correction, it shall not be accounted felony, but the master, owner, and every such other person so giving correction, shall be free and acquit of all punishment and accusation for the same, as if such accident had never happened: And also, if any negro, mulatto, or Indian, bond or free, shall at any time, lift his or her hand, in opposition against any Christian, not being negro, mulatto, or Indian, he or she so offending, shall, for every such offence, proved by the oath of the party, receive on his or her bare back, thirty lashes, well laid on.. XXXVI. And also it is hereby enacted and declared, That baptism of slaves doth not exempt them from bondage; and that all children shall be bond or free, according to the condition of their mothers, and the particular directions of this act...
Main Sources and Destinations of African Slaves, ca. 1500–1860
The African Population The African Population of the British Colonies, 1620- 1780
African Population as a Proportion of Total Population, c. 1775
The Middle Passage
The “middle passage” referred to the transatlantic sea voyage that brought slaves to the New World—the long and hazardous “middle” segment of a journey that began with a forced march to the African coast and ended with a trek into the American interior.
From Whose Point of View?
Human Bondage 1. What is the purpose of treating slaves with inhumanity and violence? 2. For what reasons did whites feel justiﬁed in their treatment of Africans? 3. Virginia Legislature (1667): “the conferring of baptism does not alter the condition of the person to his bondage or freedom.” Did a deep-rooted color prejudice lead to slavery, or did the existence of slavery produce the prejudice?
America’s First Population Explosion The African Population of the British Colonies, 1620- 1780
America’s First Population Explosion
The Slave Trade 600,000 slaves transported to British North America during the several centuries of the slave trade.
Rice and Rebellion
Mulberry Plantation in South Carolina, 1770
Stono Rebellion, 1739 1. 100 Africans rose up, killed 20+ whites and attempted to flee to Florida, quickly crushed by whites. Other slaves tried to run away. 2. Largest slave uprising in colonial America prior to the Revolution.
Stono Rebellion, 1739 1. 1. In response to the rebellion, the South Carolina legislature passed the Negro Act of 1740 restricting slave assembly, education, and movement. It also enacted a 10-year moratorium against importing African slaves, and established penalties against slaveholders' harsh treatment of slaves.
Plantation Slavery and its Culture The Emergence of an African American Culture In this scene from the mid-nineteenth century, African Americans play musical instruments of European derivation, like the fiddle, as well as instruments of African origin, like the bones and banjo—a vivid illustration of the blending of the two cultures in the crucible of the New World.
The Puritan Community New England towns were collections of interrelated households
New England Life – Religion
Roman Catholic Church
New England Life – Religion A Colonial Primer Religious - instruction loomed large in early colonial schools. This 18 th century textbook from Germantown, Pennsylvania, taught lessons of social duty and Christian faith, as well as reading and writing.
Immigrant Families and New Social Order 1. Puritans believed God ordained the family 2. Reproduced patriarchal English family structure in New England 3. Most New Englanders married neighbors with similar values
New England’s Freehold Society Farm Families: Women in the Household Economy Husband the Head of the Household Wife as the “Helpmate” Motherhood Restrictions Farm Property: Inheritance Family Authority Children of Wealthy Parents Marriage Father’s Duty
New England’s Communities
Puritan New England Puritanism and Witchcraft Supernatural Forces Salem Witchcraft 1692 (view)view
18 th Century Philadelphia
Provincial Cities 1. Only about 5% of population 2. Five largest cities: Boston, Newport, New York, Philadelphia, and Charles Town 3. Economies were geared to commerce, not manufacturing 4. Inhabitants emulated English culture, fashion, and architecture 5. Cities were becoming more elegant 6. High white literacy rates
Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827). The Peale Family.
Henry Benbridge (1743-1812). Gordon Family
John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). The Copley Family
Henry Benbridge (1743-1812). The Hartley Family.
Henry Benbridge (1743-1812). The Archibald Bulloch Family.
Charles Willson Peale (1827). Robert Goldsborough & Family.
Edward Savage (1761-1817). The George Washington Family.
American Enlightenment 1. Intellectual movement that swept Europe with new, radical ideas Age of Reason Age of Reason 2. The Enlightenment’s basic assumptions: Optimistic view of human nature Optimistic view of human nature God set up the universe and human society to operate by mechanistic, natural laws God set up the universe and human society to operate by mechanistic, natural laws Those laws can be found through reason Those laws can be found through reason
Benjamin Franklin 1. Franklin (1706–1790) regarded as Enlightenment thinker by Europeans 2. Started as printer, then satirist in Boston. Moved to Philadelphia 3. Achieved wealth through printing business 4. Made important scientific discoveries and inventions 5. Symbol of material progress through human ingenuity
Table 5-3 p90
Religious Revivals in Provincial Societies 1. The Great Awakening Spontaneous, evangelical revivals Spontaneous, evangelical revivals People began to rethink basic assumptions about church and state, institutions and society People began to rethink basic assumptions about church and state, institutions and society 2. Movement occurred among many denominations in different places at different times New England in the 1730s; Virginia in the 1750s and 1760s New England in the 1730s; Virginia in the 1750s and 1760s
The Great Awakening 1. Jonathan Edwards sparked the movement - 1734 Reminded people of omnipotent God and predestination Reminded people of omnipotent God and predestination Reaction to ministers going “soft” on population Reaction to ministers going “soft” on population
The Voice of Evangelical Religion 1. George Whitefield a dynamic personality and speaker who sustained the revivals Preached outdoor sermons to thousands of people in nearly every colony Preached outdoor sermons to thousands of people in nearly every colony Skilled entrepreneur and promoter Skilled entrepreneur and promoter 2. Itinerant ministers followed Whitefield’s example Split established churches into “new lights” and “old lights” Split established churches into “new lights” and “old lights”
p89 The College of New Jersey at Princeton, 1764
p88 George Whitefield Preaching Americans of both genders and all races and regions were spellbound by Whitefield’s emotive oratory.
The Voice of Evangelical Religion 1. Gave voice to those traditionally silenced 2. The Awakening promoted a democratic, evangelical union of national scope 3. Fostered sense of American unity
The Voice of Evangelical Religion 1. Despite outbursts of anti-intellectualism, “new lights” formed colleges Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, and Rutgers Princeton, Dartmouth, Brown, and Rutgers
Table 5-2 p86
Colonial Governments 1. Because Britain was far away, colonists “created” their self government 2. Politics are locally controlled. Local communities ran their own affairs, formed local assemblies that functioned like mini English Parliament. 3. Provincial governors appointed by the crown, but limited in power in reality 4. Quasi self government did not become a problem until 1763 when Britain began to tighten its imperial policy.
Sermon Activity In your groups, write a short SERMON (1-2 paragraphs) that attacks a SPECIFIC SIN. Be creative Be creative Use imagery and ﬁery language Use imagery and ﬁery language Elect one person to PREACH your sermon to the congregation Elect one person to PREACH your sermon to the congregation