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Chapter 3: Independence (pages 90-116).  What was the context in which independence was gained?  What events and ideas influenced the revolutions? 

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: Independence (pages 90-116).  What was the context in which independence was gained?  What events and ideas influenced the revolutions? "— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3: Independence (pages )

2  What was the context in which independence was gained?  What events and ideas influenced the revolutions?  Who was and who was not involved? To what extent were they involved?  How did the outcomes of the revolutions match the founding ideals?

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4 Bad government in Spain  Carlos IV drove state into bankruptcy  Increased taxes and sale of political offices for revenue  Resentment among Spanish Americans Violence and Invasion  Napoleonic Wars (  Imprisonment of Spanish king gave colonies de facto independence

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6 Loyalists Selected first Privileged jobs Peninsulars Compete with Peninsulars Rebels Creoles Maybe rebels 80% of the population Annoyed by Creoles in daily life Natives, Africans, Mixed Descent Slaves??? What was at stake for each of the four?

7 Mexico  Hidalgo inspires peasants, but “too indigenous for the Creoles  Father Morelos, a mestizo, energies creoles and lower classes Peru  Tupac Amaru II’s revolt of 1780s scare away creoles from uniting natives Venezuela + Argentine  Both had active creole movements against Spain  Movements helped by experienced horsemen !Viva la revolucion!

8 CREOLES FOUND THEMSELVES IN A PICKLE “NATIVISM”  Too few Creoles for a revolution  Considered indigenous rebellions dangerous  Need to unite with lower classes to fight Peninsulars  Birthplace distinguishes “them” from “us”  Creoles, Natives and Mestizo were now Americanos  Peninsulars were not Americanos  Now Americanos v Peninsulars

9 BACKGROUNDKEY DIFFERENCES  King Jao was living in Brazil to escape Napoleon  Jao left son to rule over Brazil when forced back to Portugal  New leader declared “Empire of Brazil”  No need to fight the king— the king declared independence  Imperial army too small to oppose declaration

10 SIMON BOLIVARJOSE DE SAN MARTIN  Began revolutions in Venezuela  Moved to Ecuador  Finished the work of an Martin after he fled to Europe  Launched surprise attack from Argentina through Chile  From Chile, captured Lima, Peru  Made his way towards the center of the continent, but had to flee  Bolivar finished liberation in highlands

11 SPANISH CONTROL CREOLE CONTROL  Patriarchy  Racism  Classicism  Patriarchy  Racism  Classicism

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