Presentation on theme: "+ Communists Triumph in China Ch. 17 Section 2 By: Brooke Pigneri & Garrett Williams."— Presentation transcript:
+ Communists Triumph in China Ch. 17 Section 2 By: Brooke Pigneri & Garrett Williams
+ Civil War in China (Internal Struggles) Even after World War II ended, the Nationalists and Communists fought for control over the country. Mao Zedong – dominated northwestern China and leader for Communists. Jiang Jieshi – dominated southwestern China and leader for Nationalists. The United States sent $1.5 billion in aid to the Nationalist for the fight against the Japanese but it ended up in the hands of corrupt officers. They actually fought few battles against the Japanese and saved its strength for battles against Mao’s army. Even when the Japanese surrendered, the Nationalists and Communists resumed their civil war.
+ Civil War in China (Involvement of the United States) The Nationalists had an advantage as the United States provided $2 billion more in aid. But, Nationalists moved the Communists side because the economy was collapsing and the Communists were better train and they were promised return of land. The remnants of the Nationalists fled to Taiwan and named it National China and set up a government there while Mao Zedong gained control of the country and named it People’s Republic of China. The idea of having two China’s intensified the Cold War. His victory fueled anti-communist feelings from the U.S. as they viewed it as another step of the communists gaining control of the world. This grew even more when the Chinese and the Soviets signed a treaty in 1950.
+ Chinese Political Opponents Nationalists Jiang Jieshi Southern China United States Defeat of Communists Weak due to inflation and failing economy Ineffective, corrupt leadership, and poor morale LEADER AREA RULED FOREIGN SUPPORT DOMESTIC POLICY PUBLIC SUPPORT MILITARY ORGANIZATION Communists Mao Zedong Northern China Soviet Union National Liberation Strong due to promise land reform Experienced, motivated guerilla army
+ Two Chinas and the Cold War (The Superpowers React) The Nationalists government received aid from the U.S. in Taiwan and the Communists received financial, military, and technical aid from the Soviets. Chinese and Soviets pledged to come to each other’s defense if either country was attacked. The U.S. responded to this by enlarging its own sphere of influence in Asia.
+ Two Chinas and the Cold War (Communist China Continues to Expand) Chinese troops expanded into southern/Inner Mongolia, Tibet, and India. They named Mongolia an “Autonomous Area.” Tibet became an autonomous region. When China took over Tibet, Dalai Lama, who was the leader of the Tibetans, fled to India. Other refugees fled to India from Tibet as well. Therefore, resentment grew between India and China especially when India trespassed into China’s unclear borders.
+ Transformation and Revolution (Transformation Under Mao Zedong) The Mao Communists moved rapidly to strengthen their rule over China. The Chinese Communists were highly disciplined group and set up two parallel organizations: communist party and the national government Mao ruled as both chairman of the Communist party and head of state.
+ Transformation and Revolution (Mao’s Marxist Socialism) Mao used Marxist socialism to reshape China’s economy 80% of population lives in rural areas but no one owned much land. But 10% of the rural population controlled 70% of farmland. Therefore, Mao divided the landlords among the peasants. He forced them to join collective farms. Other Chinese Communists ideas included Marxist ideas about women and family, women being equal in the home and workplace, and instituting state-sponsored child care. In addition, Mao transformed industry and business and soon enough all private companies were under government ownership. He also launched a Five Year Plan that set high production targets for industry and it succeeded.
+ Transformation and Revolution (Mao’s Communes) Another ambitious program was created to expand the success from the Five-Year Plan called the “Great Leap Forward.” Communes, or collective farms, were a big part of the Great Leap Forward and the Chinese set up 26,000 communes. The peasants had a strict life in the communes. This Great Leap Forward proved to be a great leap backward as it hampered growth. Crop failures unleashed a famine that made this even worse.
+ Transformation and Revolution (New Polices and Mao’s Response) China faced external problems as well internal ones. The alliance between the Soviet Union and China began to fade because they both wanted to lead the worldwide Communist movement and faced territorial disputes. After this split and the failure of the Great Leap Forward, Mao stepped down in position and the new leaders gave the rights back to the people that Mao took away. But, Mao disapproved of China’s new economic policies so he launched another campaign directed toward high school and college students. Students left their classrooms to form militia units known as the Red Guards.
+ Transformation and Revolution (The Cultural Revolution) The Cultural Revolution began because of the Red Guards. The goal of the cultural Revolution was to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal. They believed that the life of the mind was useless and dangerous and so they shut down schools. They had very harsh punishments and rules and this chaos allowed civil war to seem possible. Mao realized that the Cultural Revolution needed to end. The Red Guards stepped down and one of the founders of the Chinese Communist part began to restore order.
+ With China struggling to become stable, the Cold War continued to rage around the world!
+ United Nations Current United Nations Topic: Idea of Communism Around the World: China is still a communist country, but turning to a more capitalist economy. Looking at North Korea, we see a dictatorial state. Do you think the ideas of communism or capitalism better the international community. Idea of the Security Council: Should there be 5 permanent members? Should they have veto power? What would happen if another UNSC conflict were to arise?
+ Primary Source Our Policies Toward Communism in China http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ul h&AN=9798180&site=src-live http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ul h&AN=9798180&site=src-live
+ Do agree with this statement? Do you think the US should have accepted Communist China or was their decision to not recognize them justified? Do you think the US in their decision to not trade with Communist China helped to stop a potential war?
+ Quiz 1. When the Chinese and Soviets made an agreement that they would come to each other’s aid when attacked, what did the U.S. do in response? Enlarging its own sphere of influence in Asia 2. Name one country the Chinese troops expanded into. Southern/Inner Mongolia, Tibet, and India 3. Why did resentment grow between India and China? India welcomed the refugees from Tibet when China invaded. Also, India trespassed into China’s unclear borders
+ Quiz (cont’) 4. When Mao transformed businesses, what did he do with private companies? He put them under government ownership 5. Communes played a big role in the great leap forward. What are communes? Collective farms 6. What did the Great Leap Forward become known for after growth was hampered? The Great Leap Backward
+ Quiz (cont’) 7. Why did the alliance between the Soviet Union and China begin to fade? They both wanted to lead the worldwide Communist movement and faced territorial disputes. 8. After Mao stepped down in position what program did he launch that was direct toward high school and college students? Red Guards 9. What did the Red Guards program begin in China? The Cultural Revolution 10. Who began to restore order after the cultural revolution ended? A leader of the Chinese Communist Party
+ Works Cited Beck, Roger B., Linda Black, Larry S. Kriger, Phillip C. Naylor, and Dahia I. Shabaka. Modern World History. Evanston: McDougal Littell, 2003. Print. "Our Policies Toward Communism in China." Vital Speeches of the Day. N.p., 1 Aug. 1957. MAS Ultra - School Edition. Web. 7 May 2012..http://web.ebscohost.com/src/detail?sid=7c565591-082a- 4674-846b- 723c96737abf%40sessionmgr110&vid=1&hid=108&bdata=Jn NpdGU9c3JjLWxpdmU%3d#db=ulh&AN=9798180