Presentation on theme: "How did France become a republic? September 1791 – August 1792."— Presentation transcript:
How did France become a republic? September 1791 – August 1792
1. What was the Declaration of Pillnitz of 27 August 1791? How was it an instance of the growing threat of foreign intervention that would influence the course of the Revolution?
Answer: “Disturbed by the imprisonment of the royal family after the Flight to Varennes, however, he [Austrian Emperor Leopold II] demanded their safety… warned that European monarchies might restore Louis’ authority.” Understood by the Revolutionaries as a declaration of intent to make war on France.
2. How were Leopold and Marie-Antoinette related?
3. The Legislative Assembly, which first sat on October 1, 1791, was divided between members of the Feuillants Club on the one hand (like Lafayette) and Brissotins/ Rolandists/ Girondins. What was the basic difference between these two groups in terms of their attitude to the Revolution?
Answer: Feuillants Club: Constitutional monarchists who believed the Revolution had gone far enough. Brissotins/ Rolandists/ Girondins: More radical and ardent proponents of the Revolution. Republicans or, at least, concerned about the extent of power the King retained under the new constitution.
4. How did the ongoing tensions with the clergy cause the Revolution to become more extreme.
Answer: Refractory priests who refused to swear an oath of loyalty to the nation were declared suspect, subject to police surveillance and/or deported. A precedent of harsh methods against dissidents was established.
5. How did the emigration of counter- revolutionary nobles lead to the radicalisation of the Revolution?
Answer: - 6000 army officers had fled France by late 1791 - Émigré nobles joined the armies of the countries they fled to. - They also lobbied for foreign intervention to halt the Revolution (the Declaration of Pillnitz was partly a reaction to such pressure). - Émigrés did not accept an offer of amnesty: it was clear they were implacably opposed to the Revolution. - The Assembly was faced with a fundamental threat to the Revolution. Brissot and the Brissotins proposed: confiscation of property; war against countries harbouring emigres; the death penalty for nobles who did not return by January 1, 1792. The counter-revolutionary threat lead the Revolution to adopt increasingly harsh, violent and totalitarian measures.
6. How did the King prevent the harsh laws designed to stamp out counter-revolution? How did this approach feed in to the radicalisation of the Revolution?
Answer: - Louis used the suspensive veto granted him by the Constitution. - Louis, who had of course already tried to flee the country, appeared to be blocking emergency measures necessary to sustain the Revolution. In other words, he appeared to be on the side of the counter- revolutionaries. - The extent of the King’s power under the Constitution of 1791 was made apparent, inspiring republican feeling.
7a. What were the series of events that led to the outbreak of war in April 1792?
Answer: - 14 December 1791: ultimatum to German princes harbouring emigres. - 21 December 1791: outraged Austrian emperor promises to defend German princes against France - Legislative Assembly cancelled Austrian-French peace treaties, instructed Austria to renounce hostile treaties or face war - February 1792: Austria signs military alliance with Prussia against France - March 1792: pro-war Brissotin ministry sworn in - Only seven deputies in the Legislative Assembly voted against the declaration of war. Robespierre was opposed to war but had excluded himself from the Legislative Assembly (presumably, on his Republican principles?). - 20 April 1792: Louis declares war.
7b. What were the major reasons why the revolutionaries, led by the Brissotins, rallied for war?
Answer: - Response to the émigré threat - Spread the Revolution to oppressed people throughout Europe: ideal of universal rights; outflank foreign monarchs without any real popular support - Use appeal to patriotic feeling to recover revolutionary unity
8. How did the war lead to further radicalisation of the Revolution?
Answer: - By May 1792, the French had experienced a number of defeats and fear of foreign invasion was high. - Suspicion that the King was sympathetic to the invaders and supporting them was high. - Foreigners in Paris were placed under political surveillance. - King’s use of veto, particularly against disbanding his bodyguard and bringing 20,000 National Guard to Paris, further placed him under suspicion. - Brissotin ministry dismissed, Lafayette cracks down on radical Parisian clubs, suspected of planning coup
9. On 20 June 1792, the Parisian popular movement in association with the radical Cordeliers Club, organised a mass protest. What were their objectives and methods?
Answer: - Objectives: removal of active/ passive distinction; defense of the revolution from its enemies (eg Lafayette); opening of National Guard to anybody with a pike - Methods: marched on the Legislative Assembly; sang bloodthirsty songs; paraded a calf’s heart impaled on a pike, labelled ‘The Heart of an Aristocrat’.
10. How did the Duke of Brunswick’s manifesto (25 July 1792) escalate the situation?
Answer: - Commander of the Austrian-Prussian army, the Duke of Brunswick, declared the population of Paris personally responsible for the safety of the royal family. “If the family were harmed, Austrian troops would subject the entire city to ‘military execution’, meaning destruction.” (Adcock 2009: 147) - Provoked outrage and anger against the King
11. How was the monarchy overthrown on 10 August 1792?
Answer: - The 48 local councils of Paris had formed one body first known as the Paris Commune and then as the Insurrectionary Commune. - 20,000 people marched on the Tuileries Palace, which was defended by 900 Swiss guards, 700 royalist volunteers and 2000 National Guards. - The National Guards joined the demonstrators but the Swiss guards refused to acquiesce and fired on the crowd. - Crowd surged into the palace: 800 Swiss guard killed, many in cold blood - Demanded universal male suffrage and that the King be handed over to the people. - Legislative Assembly suspended the King; imposed all laws held up by royal veto; facilitated creation of National Convention elected on universal male suffrage.