2 The Home Front Great achievement of the Union Despite hundreds of thousands of fewer farmers:Union raised more wheat in 1862 and 1863 than the entire nation combined in 1860 and 1861The United States doubled exports of wheat, corn, pork, and beef to Europe during the war. Europe was in famine.
3 Growth of farming“farming is comparatively child’s play to what it was 20 years ago. The machinery is pefect.” Scientific America 1863Many of these technologies that the north experienced were not available in the south due to the lack of foundries and machine shops and the unrelenting pressure for arms.
4 Troubles in the South“my wife and children are emaciated and the shadow a famine is upon us.” War Officer of the Confederate Army.“Bread or Blood Riots” 1863-Richmond Va.
5 The South at War1863: Charlestonians paid ten times more for food than they had in 1861.By Christmas day 1864 a monthly wage for a confederate soldier NO LONGER BOUGHT A PAIR OF SOCKS!Some historians estimate inflation of 9,000% by the end of the war-nearly as bad as post WWII Germany.
6 The South at War20-the number of slaves that were required to exempt one from military service.1863-the year the south, as a result of labor shortages, were forced to include slaves into their ranks as laborers.
7 The South at WarPrice of salt: 1861-two dollars for a 5 lb bag, in 1862-it rose to 61$ a bag!Flour-3 cents a pound in 1861 was 45 cents in 1863.10% “the tax-in-kind” the most hated element of Confederate rule which was nearly as contemptible as Northern rule by 1864.
8 War Financing in the South Simply put Confederacy couldn’t pay its debts.Unwilling to levy taxesBond sales dwindling.In 2 successive years printed a total of 550 million in unbacked currency.
9 The South at War“Men cannot be expected to fight for the Government that permits their wives and children to starve”.1863: Bread and tax revolts broke out in twelve large Southern cities.
10 The South at WarI would not have you do anything other than this cause, Edward…but unless you come home we will die.” Soldiers wife-1864What cost a southern 1 in 1861 cost them 46 three years later.
11 The disintegration of slavery Not the type of revolts people expected-violent revolt. Rather it was shocking to many to see the “disobedience” and “work stoppages” that occurred.More than 100,000 men fled bondage and took up arms as federal soldiers.500,000 of the 4,000,000 slaves ran to Northern military lines.
12 The disintegration of slavery “some of us have resorted to offering gifts or part of the crop—to keep slaves at home and at work.”“The idea of the faithful servant is all fiction” North Carolina slaveholder
13 The North at War 2,000,000 the size of the Union army. 0-the number of income taxes, national currencies, or national banking systems at the beginning of the war! All three would be enacted.Republican domination? Legal tender act-Greenbacks, National Bank Act, Internal Revenue Act.
14 The North at War“I met more women driving teams on the road and saw more at work in the fields than men” Iowan.165,000 number of reapers sold in the North during war.“I am in no hurry for peace” Pennsylvanian ironmasterWeeks wage for a woman in industry? 1.54$ necessary for “poverty level” about 2.50$ a week.
15 The North at WarInflation and wage reductions resulted in loss of purchasing power:Inflation in North stood at 80%, wages cut by 30% on average.
16 Other numbers14,000 the number of Americans imprisoned without Habeas Corpus by Lincoln.300$ the amount needed to “jump” service in 1863.105 the number of deaths in a New York draft riot (1864-Gangs of New York) led predominantly by Irish immigrants.
17 Financing the War: The North “Northern efforts to finance the war were innovative and successful”Three ways to pay:Bonds (67)Tax levy (21)Issuing currency (12)South did #3 and it led to inflation of 9,000%
18 Union inflationThanks to Lincoln’s appointment—Salmon Chase Union inflation was 80%.Currency produced “with confidence in Federal Union”—the Greenback.