Presentation on theme: "Understanding the Middle East Instructor Pacas. The Middle East Problem: History vs. Historical Developments in the Modern World The antagonistic history."— Presentation transcript:
The Middle East Problem: History vs. Historical Developments in the Modern World The antagonistic history between the Arabs, Jewish people and the West in the modern age can be traced to the end of WWI and developments between Great Britain and the faltering Ottoman Empire. The area was coveted by CIC nations because of their wealth in the natural resource of oil. Religion also played a key role in this development as Christian fundamentalists within the British Empire sought to create strong ties with zionist (Jewish people demanding the creation of a Jewish state) interests within Europe.
The Balfour Declaration 1917 This letter to Lord Rothschild, by the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, was aimed at Jewish support for the Allies in the First World War. The letter, known as the "Balfour Declaration" became the basis movement to create a Jewish state in Palestine. The letter was published a week later in The Times (London) of London Foreign Office November 2nd, 1917 Dear Lord Rothschild: I have much pleasure in conveying to you. on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet: His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country. I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. Yours, Arthur James Balfour
The Point of Contention In the early decades of the 20 th century the region of the Middle East coveted by Jewish people to try to reestablish their ancestral homeland, according to the biblical texts, was already densely populated by Arab people. These Arabs had been living in this territory for no less than 2,000 years.
Ancient History The Palestinian people claimed to have settled region claimed by Jewish people and equal support for this claim from biblical texts. Palestinians claim descent from the Philistines mentioned in the biblical text. The ancestors of both Jews and Palestinians had fought each other for possession of the contested territory in antiquity.
The Romans The Jewish client kingdoms and Romano- Jewish provinces were a constant source of social unrest for the Romans with tensions escalating between 66 -135 CE. Between 68-70 CE Rome put down Jewish rebellions after rebellions and decided to destroy the Jewish peoples’ cultural and religious centers. Eventually Rome uprooted most of the Jewish population in the region and resettled them throughout the Roman Empire.
Historical Development As soon as the Jewish population was removed from the region it was settled by diverse groups of people from all over the Roman Empire but mostly Arab people. This region became Christian during the period of Late Antiquity and eventually with the rise of Islam converted to the Muslim faith. This region has since then predominantly been settled by Muslim Arabs with small communities of Christian Arabs and Jewish people in the region.
Muslims, Christians and Jews Throughout the medieval period most of the region lived in relative peace until the Crusades of Europe invaded the region. Most Islamic regions practiced a higher degree of religious tolerance than their Christian European counterparts. During the Spanish Reconquista many Spanish Jews fled to the Ottoman Empire (15 th -16 th centuries CE).
Modern Age After the Balfour Declaration many European Jews sought to migrate into the British claimed Palestine territory in the hopes of establishing a permanent Jewish homeland in this territory. This influx of Jewish migration was not well received by the Arab population in the region who aspired to be independent from a colonial power. Recently liberated from Ottoman yoke they now sought national autonomy.
Powder Keg The two mutually antagonistic groups (Zionist Jews and Muslim Arabs) in the region engaged in wars against each other throughout the 20’s and 30’s. After WWII the U.S., under President Truman, decided to intervene on behalf of the Zionist and recognized the state of Israel before the U.N. recognized it and thus incurred the anger of Muslim Arab people.
The West, CIC Interests and New Crusades The historical development of CIC nations and their relations, usually exploitative, with the Middle East have fostered a sense of distrust of U.S. and Europeans among the Arab people. Tensions have been high for most of the history of the 20 th century and still are in the early 21 st century.
INRM’s and Israel Because of their allegiance to CIC nations, Israel has often been a willing participant in supplying as well as sending military personnel to train counter-revolutionary groups and death squads in the southern hemisphere. Israel has usually been supportive of the military dictatorships in these regions. Because of these developments, most INRM’s have therefore been anti-(pro- Israel) policy and supported the Arab claims.
Christian Fundamentalists and the Pro-Israel Lobby Christian Fundamentalist groups who abhor the predominant socialist rhetoric of INRM’s (as well as extremely influenced by their interpretation of scriptures) are supporters of the Pro-Israel Zionist interests groups within the U.S.
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