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FC12 THE INDUS RIVER CIVILIZATION & PATTERN OF INDIAN HISTORY Aryans (FC.50) Pattern of rise of hydraulic civilizations (FC.6) Extremely complex & varied.

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Presentation on theme: "FC12 THE INDUS RIVER CIVILIZATION & PATTERN OF INDIAN HISTORY Aryans (FC.50) Pattern of rise of hydraulic civilizations (FC.6) Extremely complex & varied."— Presentation transcript:

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2 FC12 THE INDUS RIVER CIVILIZATION & PATTERN OF INDIAN HISTORY Aryans (FC.50) Pattern of rise of hydraulic civilizations (FC.6) Extremely complex & varied culture that at once absorbs new peoples yet keeps them distinct Slows conquests by & absorption of new people Less faith in this life  More concern w/religion India very difficult to conquer Hot humid climate  Tropical diseases India a huge sub- continent cut into distinct regions India cut off by huge mts., but w/some passes Position on Arabian Sea & Indian Ocean attracts new people & ideas Indian gems, spices and cotton attract new people & ideas Greeks (FC.51) Muslims (FC.52) British (FC.123) Indus R. Civ. w/highly org. centers at Mohenjo Daro & Harappa characterized by: Trade with & cultural influence from Mesopot. Standard weights & measures for trade Urban planning in rectangular grids Sewers to drain water & wastes Not clear if there was 1 cent. gov. or indep. cities Several possible reasons for decline: Deforestation  Drier & hotter climate Indus River changed course Too much irrig.  Salinized soil Monsoons shifted  Left Indus Civ. arid Warlike Aryans from NW w/horse & chariot take over (c.1500 B.C.E.) PATTERN OF INDIAN HISTORY

3 FC.50 THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN CIVILIZATION (c B.C.E.) Despite political & social disunity, India unified by religious ideas  Unique culture flourishes under Maurya & Gupta dynasties (FC.51) Fall of Indus River civilization (FC.12) Center of power shifts from more sparsely populated Indus R. in W. to heavily populated Ganges R. in E. Aryan culture characterized by: Powerful priesthood Polytheistic religion Patriarchal warlike society Probable survival & influence of pre- Aryan culture & religion (FC.12) Aryan culture characterized by: Powerful kings to supervise irrigation Large middle class from trade Large popul. from rice agric. Indian society rigidly set into castes with Aryans in top three castes, justified by karma & made acceptable by reincarnation & hope of better life to come More complex soc.  Aryans concerned ~status vs non-Aryans Newcomers put into new castes that both assimilated them into Indian society & kept them separate from each other Introduction of coinage from Persia Renewal of sea trade w/middle East Use of iron which can cut through rain forests Rice agric. which can support large populations Ancient Sanskrit in Vedas increasingly hard to interpret over time Ind. mystics reject rigid rituals & old interpretations of the gods, & instead strive for spiritual enlight. & union w/the one pervading spirit of the universe: Brahman Only Aryan priests (Brahmins) can read & interpret them Opens way for more philosoph. speculation  Buddhism & Jainism which break totally from Brahmins’ authority

4 A FC.51 INDIA FROM THE MAURYAS TO THE GUPTAS (C.325 B.C.E.-711 C.E.) After Guptas fall, Hinduism faces new challenge from Islam (FC.52) Chandragupta Maurya ( BCE.) founds emp. in N. Ind.  Roads & irrig. projects  prosp. Big army, Cent. gov. & spies Asoka ( B.C.E.) rules w/Buddhist idea of non-violence: Sent out Budd. missionaries Public works to help his subjects Ind’s geog.  Disunity (FC.12)Ind. unified by philos. (FC.50) Non-violence weakens army  Mauryans fall (c.185 B.C.E)  Grks rule NW India Kushan Kgd in N. Ind. (78-c.300 C.E.)  Trade w/Rome & China  Use Chin. titles Greek infl. in art For. infl.  Split in Buddhism Hinyana: Each person must earn nirvana Mahayana: Buddha helps save us Gupta Dyn. (319-c.500) rules N. Ind.  Golden age of Ind. civ. Math: pi, decimal system & zero Literature, arch., art & astron, Hindu Brahmans win converts in countryside w/ ideas of: All gods as part of Brahma Dharma, karma, & reincarnation Hinduism becomes dominant relig. in India while Buddhism spreads across E & SE Asia Indian civ. spread to SE Asia by trade

5 FC.52 THE COMING OF ISLAM TO INDIA (711-c.1700 C.E.) Islam the dominant religion in Central Asia north of India New waves of Muslims invade from NWAre gradually absorbed by Ind. Civ. Until: Arabs conquer NW India & rule fairly despite differences w/Hindus: Egalitarian Muslim soc vs.Hindu castes Islam’s monotheism vs. Hindu Polytheism Arabs stopped by Hindu Rajputs: Claim descent from Huns Fight ritualized wars  Chess Arabs defeat Chinese army at Talas R. in 751 (FC.46 Some Muslim castesSome intermarriage Mughal Dyn. (1526-c.1700) rules most of India w/wise policies Use Hindu rajputs as allies & officials Religious tolerance & intermarriage Further blending of cultures: Art, architecture, & music Persian + Ind. Lang’s  Urdu Muslim Turkic invaders  Sultanate of Dehli (1206-c.1500)  Cultures slowly blend Mystical branch of Islam (Sufism) Some lower castes convert to Islam Aurangzeb’s expensive wars & persecution of Hindus  Emp’s declline  British take over India (FC.123)

6 GEOGRAPHY QUIZBOWL!

7 River? Indus R.Ganges R. Ocean? Indian Ocean Deccan W. Ghats E. Ghats Sri Lanka China River?Country? Plateau? Mts? Sea? Arabian Sea Mts? Island? Bay of Bengal Bay?

8 THE ARYANS & THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIAN CIVILIZATION

9 1) Major written source of info at this time?

10 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas

11 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE?

12 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians

13 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth?

14 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle

15 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma?

16 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals

17 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee?

18 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices

19 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice?

20 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it

21 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins?

22 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class

23 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods?

24 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky

25 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra?

26 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans

27 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha?

28 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley

29 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra?

30 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha

31 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism?

32 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva

33 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman?

34 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman? God of creation

35 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman? God of creation 10) Who was Shiva?

36 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman? God of creation 10) Who was Shiva? God of destruction

37 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman? God of creation 10) Who was Shiva? God of destruction 11) Who was Vishnu?

38 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman? God of creation 10) Who was Shiva? God of destruction 11) Who was Vishnu? God of preservation who sends avatars to save us in bad times

39 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman? God of creation 10) Who was Shiva? God of destruction 11) Who was Vishnu? God of preservation who sends avatars to save us in bad times ECT: How do you recognize Vishnu’s avatars in Indian art?

40 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman? God of creation 10) Who was Shiva? God of destruction 11) Who was Vishnu? God of preservation who sends avatars to save us in bad times ECT: How do you recognize Vishnu’s avatars in Indian art? Blue

41 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman? God of creation 10) Who was Shiva? God of destruction 11) Who was Vishnu? God of preservation who sends avatars to save us in bad times ECT: How do you recognize Vishnu’s avatars in Indian art? Blue 12) How did the increasing obscurity of Sanskrit affect the brahmins' status?

42 1) Major written source of info at this time? 4 vedas 2) Who were the Aryans associated with till c.2000 BCE? Persians 3) Aryans’ major form of wealth? Cattle ECT: What was soma? Drug used in religious rituals ECT: What was ghee? Clarified butter used in sacrifices ECT: What was a horse sacrifice? Let white stallion wander for a year, claiming all land it crossed-> Then sacrifice it 4) Who or what were Brahmins? Aryan priest class 5) What were the 3 main groups of gods? Heaven, earth, & sky 6) Who was Indra? Most popular god of early Aryans 7) What was Magadha? Powerful Indian state in Ganges valley ECT: What was Pataliputra? Capital of Magadha 8) Trinity of gods in Hinduism? Brahman, Vishnu, & Shiva 9) Who was Brahman? God of creation 10) Who was Shiva? God of destruction 11) Who was Vishnu? God of preservation who sends avatars to save us in bad times ECT: How do you recognize Vishnu’s avatars in Indian art? Blue 12) How did the increasing obscurity of Sanskrit affect the brahmins' status? It rose since they were the only ones who understood Vedas & how to do sacrifices

43 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented?

44 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet)

45 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste?

46 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma

47 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas?

48 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods

49 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads?

50 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience

51 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism?

52 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma

53 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma?

54 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life

55 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma?

56 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma

57 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha?

58 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha? Prince protected from miseries of the world to keep him from pursuing relig. Life-> When he saw suffering, he became a hermit-> Still didn’t find enlightenment-> Found enlightenment while meditating beneath bodhi tree.

59 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha? Prince protected from miseries of the world to keep him from pursuing relig. Life-> When he saw suffering, he became a hermit-> Still didn’t find enlightenment-> Found enlightenment while meditating beneath bodhi tree. 20) Four noble truths?

60 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha? Prince protected from miseries of the world to keep him from pursuing relig. Life-> When he saw suffering, he became a hermit-> Still didn’t find enlightenment-> Found enlightenment while meditating beneath bodhi tree. 20) Four noble truths? 1) Life is sorrow 2) Sorrow arises from craving 3) To stop sorrow one must stopping of craving. 4) A noble eightfold path exists to stop sorrow

61 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha? Prince protected from miseries of the world to keep him from pursuing relig. Life-> When he saw suffering, he became a hermit-> Still didn’t find enlightenment-> Found enlightenment while meditating beneath bodhi tree. 20) Four noble truths? 1) Life is sorrow 2) Sorrow arises from craving 3) To stop sorrow one must stopping of craving. 4) A noble eightfold path exists to stop sorrow 21) Two main branches of Buddhism?

62 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha? Prince protected from miseries of the world to keep him from pursuing relig. Life-> When he saw suffering, he became a hermit-> Still didn’t find enlightenment-> Found enlightenment while meditating beneath bodhi tree. 20) Four noble truths? 1) Life is sorrow 2) Sorrow arises from craving 3) To stop sorrow one must stopping of craving. 4) A noble eightfold path exists to stop sorrow 21) Two main branches of Buddhism? Hinyana (lesser vehicle) where we work for for our own salvation & Mahayana (greater vehicle) where Buddha saves us

63 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha? Prince protected from miseries of the world to keep him from pursuing relig. Life-> When he saw suffering, he became a hermit-> Still didn’t find enlightenment-> Found enlightenment while meditating beneath bodhi tree. 20) Four noble truths? 1) Life is sorrow 2) Sorrow arises from craving 3) To stop sorrow one must stopping of craving. 4) A noble eightfold path exists to stop sorrow 21) Two main branches of Buddhism? Hinyana (lesser vehicle) where we work for for our own salvation & Mahayana (greater vehicle) where Buddha saves us ECT: What are Bodhissatvas?

64 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha? Prince protected from miseries of the world to keep him from pursuing relig. Life-> When he saw suffering, he became a hermit-> Still didn’t find enlightenment-> Found enlightenment while meditating beneath bodhi tree. 20) Four noble truths? 1) Life is sorrow 2) Sorrow arises from craving 3) To stop sorrow one must stopping of craving. 4) A noble eightfold path exists to stop sorrow 21) Two main branches of Buddhism? Hinyana (lesser vehicle) where we work for for our own salvation & Mahayana (greater vehicle) where Buddha saves us ECT: What are Bodhissatvas? People who have gained enlightenment but stayed behind to help enlightenment

65 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha? Prince protected from miseries of the world to keep him from pursuing relig. Life-> When he saw suffering, he became a hermit-> Still didn’t find enlightenment-> Found enlightenment while meditating beneath bodhi tree. 20) Four noble truths? 1) Life is sorrow 2) Sorrow arises from craving 3) To stop sorrow one must stopping of craving. 4) A noble eightfold path exists to stop sorrow 21) Two main branches of Buddhism? Hinyana (lesser vehicle) where we work for for our own salvation & Mahayana (greater vehicle) where Buddha saves us ECT: What are Bodhissatvas? People who have gained enlightenment but stayed behind to help enlightenment 22) What is Nirvana?

66 14) The four main castes & parts of the body they represented? Brahmins (priests, mouth), Kshatriyas (nobles, shoulders), Vaisyas (MC & workers, thighs), Sudras (non-Aryans, feet) 15) Justification for caste? Past Karma ECT: What were Brahmanas? Commentaries by Brahmans playing down role of gods ECT: What were the Upanishads? Commentaries by hermits that emphasized mystical & personal relig. experience 16) What is monism? Polytheistic relig. seeing all gods as aspects of 1 god, Brahma 17) What is dharma? Our duty according to our station in this life 18) What is karma? Sum of our good & bad deeds according to our dharma 19) Basic life of Siddhartha? Prince protected from miseries of the world to keep him from pursuing relig. Life-> When he saw suffering, he became a hermit-> Still didn’t find enlightenment-> Found enlightenment while meditating beneath bodhi tree. 20) Four noble truths? 1) Life is sorrow 2) Sorrow arises from craving 3) To stop sorrow one must stopping of craving. 4) A noble eightfold path exists to stop sorrow 21) Two main branches of Buddhism? Hinyana (lesser vehicle) where we work for for our own salvation & Mahayana (greater vehicle) where Buddha saves us ECT: What are Bodhissatvas? People who have gained enlightenment but stayed behind to help enlightenment 22) What is Nirvana? Total enlightenment-> Extinguish our ego-> Unity with Brahma

67 VIDEO QUIZBOWL!

68 Who is this? Indra, the warlike god especially worshipped by the Aryans, was typically portrayed riding an elephant and armed with a lightning bolt He was the most human of gods, eating, drinking, & living with gusto.

69 Draupadi, the wife of Arjuna & his 4 brothers, is lost in a dice game by her father-in-law & is ordered to disrobe. When she refuses and someone tries to unravel her sari, Krishna miraculously adds two lengths of cloth for each one unravelled until her collapses from exhaustion. This and other injustices lead to an epic war involving millions of warriors. The Mahabharata is very likely based on an historical war that took place around the ninth century BCE. What is this a scene from? The Mahabharata What is happening here?

70 Seeing many of his relatives on the opposing side, Arjuna wants to avoid battle, preferring to die rather than kill his kinsmen. Krishna, appearing in his full glory, instructs Arjuna on why he should fight. What is happening in this scene? What is this a scene from? The Bhagavad Gita Where can you find this work? The Mahabharata What is the basic plot? Krishna reveals his many faces to Arjuna

71 Ravana’s men catch Rama’s friend, the flying monkey Hanuman, & attach a huge coil of cotton to his tail & set it on fire. However, this childish prank backfires as he hops from rooftop to rooftop, setting the houses of Lanka on fire before jumping into the ocean unharmed. What is this a scene from? The Ramayana What is happening here?

72 The monkeys are building a bridge from India to Lanka so Rama can attack Ravana’s demon army. Who is he trying to save? His wife, Sita

73 Since idle gossip at home has implied Sita was not always faithful to Rama during her captivity, she insists on proving her purity while in captivity by undergoing a trial by purifying fire. Even Agni, god of fire, cannot deny her purity and she survives unscathed, and she and Rama live happily ever after. What is happening here?

74 In his four hands he holds the conch representing the divine sound, Om; a discus, representing the wheel of time and the need to live a good life; a lotus representing glorious existence; and a mace indicating his power and capacity to punish if discipline in life is ignored. Who is this and what is he known for? Anytime Vishnu sees trouble, he takes an incarnation (avatar) and comes to rescue people from evil. Vishnu is the preserver god of the trinity. What does he hold in his 4 hands? What does he do to help people?

75 According to some, the four Vedas, and to others the four ages (yugas) of each cycle of creation and destruction. What god is this & what is his main attribute? Brahma is the Lord of Creation. He is a serene deity and provider of all sources of knowledge & wisdom. What do his four heads represent?

76 Shiva is the god of both destruction and wisdom. However, he is not an angry god and is typically seen in a meditative pose and with a third eye in his forehead which is the source of knowledge and wisdom. Who is this & what is he the god of? Although a god of destruction, Shiva is necessary for the continuation of the cycle of time, for without destruction there can be no new creation. Why is a god of destruction necessary in Hinduism? What are yugas? The four ages in each cycle of creation and destruction. What yuga are we in & how long is it supposed to be? Kali yuga, the last age; 432,000 years

77 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty?

78 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE)

79 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I?

80 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land

81 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs?

82 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death

83 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)?

84 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence

85 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence?

86 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa

87 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art?

88 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria?

89 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature?

90 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature? Curly haired Buddhas

91 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature? Curly haired Buddhas 5) Brahmins accomplishments in Math?

92 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature? Curly haired Buddhas 5) Brahmins accomplishments in Math?: pi, neg. Numb's, dec. Sys. W/place value digits, quadrat. Equations

93 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature? Curly haired Buddhas 5) Brahmins accomplishments in Math?: pi, neg. Numb's, dec. Sys. W/place value digits, quadrat. Equations ECT: Why were they called Arabic numerals?

94 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature? Curly haired Buddhas 5) Brahmins accomplishments in Math?: pi, neg. Numb's, dec. Sys. W/place value digits, quadrat. Equations ECT: Why were they called Arabic numerals? Remained preserve of experts until Arabs popularized & spread it

95 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature? Curly haired Buddhas 5) Brahmins accomplishments in Math?: pi, neg. Numb's, dec. Sys. W/place value digits, quadrat. Equations ECT: Why were they called Arabic numerals? Remained preserve of experts until Arabs popularized & spread it ECT: What were Stupas?

96 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature? Curly haired Buddhas 5) Brahmins accomplishments in Math?: pi, neg. Numb's, dec. Sys. W/place value digits, quadrat. Equations ECT: Why were they called Arabic numerals? Remained preserve of experts until Arabs popularized & spread it ECT: What were Stupas? Budd. Mon's)

97 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature? Curly haired Buddhas 5) Brahmins accomplishments in Math?: pi, neg. Numb's, dec. Sys. W/place value digits, quadrat. Equations ECT: Why were they called Arabic numerals? Remained preserve of experts until Arabs popularized & spread it ECT: What were Stupas? Budd. Mon's) ECT: Who do you catch elephants?

98 The Mauryan and Gupta empires 1) Founder of Mauryan dynasty? Chandragupta Maurya (c BCE) ECT: Deal he made with Seleucus I? Traded 500 elephants for land ECT: How did he spend his later yrs? Embraced Jainism, abdicated-> fast to death 2) What was unique about Ashoka ( BCE)? Sickened by bloody conquest of Kalinga-> Promoted nonviolence ECT: Term for non-violence? Ahimsa 3) What was Gandharan art? Sculpture heavily influenced by Grks from Bactria? 4) What was its most distinguishing feature? Curly haired Buddhas 5) Brahmins accomplishments in Math?: pi, neg. Numb's, dec. Sys. W/place value digits, quadrat. Equations ECT: Why were they called Arabic numerals? Remained preserve of experts until Arabs popularized & spread it ECT: What were Stupas? Budd. Mon's) ECT: Who do you catch elephants? Drive them between two lines of fences that gradually narrow and end in a corral.

99 VIDEO QUIZBOWL!

100 Top: Silver coin of Heliocles (r.150–125 BCE), the last Greco-Bactrian king Below: One of the first coins of the Yuezhi, imitative, in crude style, of the coins of the Greco- Bactrian king Heliocles, circa 120 BCE.

101 Gandharan style Buddha from N. Thailand

102 Temple of the Sun at Konarak (c.1250). The building in its entirety represents the chariot of the sun with its wheels visible at the bottom.

103 Krishna was the most popular of Vishnu’s avatars & the subject of many stories. As a mischievious little boy, he was chained to a honey pot by his mother for stealing honey. Dragging it through two trees he uprooted them, inadvertently rescuing two princes trapped underneath by an evil wizard.

104 Garuda, king of the birds, carries Krishna & Radha through the air.

105 Krishna sucks up a fire unleashed by the jealous fire god, Agni, to save his loyal cowherds, the gopis, from destruction.

106 Krishna, trapped in the beak of an evil crane unleashed by his enemies, makes himself red-hot to force it to release him.

107 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s?

108 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism

109 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims?

110 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant

111 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig.

112 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu

113 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders?

114 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs

115 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from?

116 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire

117 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare?

118 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards

119 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this?

120 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general

121 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=?

122 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant

123 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism?

124 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled

125 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name?

126 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher”

127 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname?

128 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner"

129 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks?

130 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks? Sultanate of Delhi ( )

131 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks? Sultanate of Delhi ( ) ECT: What were yugas?

132 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks? Sultanate of Delhi ( ) ECT: What were yugas? 4 ages in each cycle of the universe’s existence

133 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks? Sultanate of Delhi ( ) ECT: What were yugas? 4 ages in each cycle of the universe’s existence 7) Who was Babur?

134 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks? Sultanate of Delhi ( ) ECT: What were yugas? 4 ages in each cycle of the universe’s existence 7) Who was Babur? Afghan leader who lost his lands-> started conquest of India

135 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks? Sultanate of Delhi ( ) ECT: What were yugas? 4 ages in each cycle of the universe’s existence 7) Who was Babur? Afghan leader who lost his lands-> started conquest of India ECT: His nickname?

136 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks? Sultanate of Delhi ( ) ECT: What were yugas? 4 ages in each cycle of the universe’s existence 7) Who was Babur? Afghan leader who lost his lands-> started conquest of India ECT: His nickname? "the Tiger”

137 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks? Sultanate of Delhi ( ) ECT: What were yugas? 4 ages in each cycle of the universe’s existence 7) Who was Babur? Afghan leader who lost his lands-> started conquest of India ECT: His nickname? "the Tiger” ECT: Claimed descent from?

138 Islam in India 1) Problems b/w Islamic vs. Ind. Civ’s? Islam more dem. soc., but strict monotheism 2) Arab policies toward non Muslims? Tolerant 3) Impact on relig. Geog. Of S. Asia? Pakistan Muslim & India Hindu 4) Name of Ind. Rulers who resisted Muslim invaders? Rajputs ECT: Claimed to be descended from? Huns or forged from fire ECT: Rajput warfare? Stylized indiv. combat ~bushido or chiv.-> Kept 3200 bards ECT: Game based on this? Chess: king on elephant is slow; queen= general ECT: What did rook=? Elephant 5) Impact of Turkish invaders on Buddhism? Buddhists not protected-> convert or fled ECT: Mahmud of Ghazni’s nick name? "idol smasher” ECT: Ala al-din’s nickname? "world burner" 6) Name of Muslim state founded by Turks? Sultanate of Delhi ( ) ECT: What were yugas? 4 ages in each cycle of the universe’s existence 7) Who was Babur? Afghan leader who lost his lands-> started conquest of India ECT: His nickname? "the Tiger” ECT: Claimed descent from? Genghis Khan & Timur the Lame

139 8) His military edge?

140 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons

141 ECT: Who or what was Panipat?

142 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526)

143 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he?

144 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source

145 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India?

146 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay

147 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )?

148 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help

149 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem?

150 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions

151 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die?

152 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored

153 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor?

154 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( )

155 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies?

156 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples

157 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation?

158 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation? Formed own religion, Din ilahi

159 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation? Formed own religion, Din ilahi 12) What areas of culture fused to a large extent?

160 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation? Formed own religion, Din ilahi 12) What areas of culture fused to a large extent? Mughal ptg. & architecture

161 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation? Formed own religion, Din ilahi 12) What areas of culture fused to a large extent? Mughal ptg. & architecture 13) What happened to Indian music & why?

162 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation? Formed own religion, Din ilahi 12) What areas of culture fused to a large extent? Mughal ptg. & architecture 13) What happened to Indian music & why? Strict ban vs music by Aurangzab -> Musicians fled to countryside-> blended w/native music

163 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation? Formed own religion, Din ilahi 12) What areas of culture fused to a large extent? Mughal ptg. & architecture 13) What happened to Indian music & why? Strict ban vs music by Aurangzab -> Musicians fled to countryside-> blended w/native music ECT: What happened to Language?

164 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation? Formed own religion, Din ilahi 12) What areas of culture fused to a large extent? Mughal ptg. & architecture 13) What happened to Indian music & why? Strict ban vs music by Aurangzab -> Musicians fled to countryside-> blended w/native music ECT: What happened to Language? Persian + native Ind. Lang.-> Urdu

165 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation? Formed own religion, Din ilahi 12) What areas of culture fused to a large extent? Mughal ptg. & architecture 13) What happened to Indian music & why? Strict ban vs music by Aurangzab -> Musicians fled to countryside-> blended w/native music ECT: What happened to Language? Persian + native Ind. Lang.-> Urdu 14) Two policies by Aurangzab-> Mughal decline?

166 8) His military edge? Muskets & cannons ECT: Who or what was Panipat? Babur’s victory vs. Delhi (1526) ECT: How educated was he? Kept personal memoirs->valuable source ECT: His opinion of India? Didn't like India w/o cold water & fruits, but deter. to stay 9) Humayun’s reign ( )? Had to flee to Persia-> turned Shi'ite for Persian help ECT: His personal problem? Addicted to opium & wine-> indecisive or bad decisions ECT: How did he die? Fell down steps & died 7 months after being restored 10) His son & successor? Akbar the Great ( ) 11) Akbar’s ruling policies? - Ruled with, not over, rajputs-> counter-wt. to Muslim nobles - Married Hindu princesses - Relig. Tolerance-> stopped dest. Of Hindu temples ECT: Akbar’s Relig. Innovation? Formed own religion, Din ilahi 12) What areas of culture fused to a large extent? Mughal ptg. & architecture 13) What happened to Indian music & why? Strict ban vs music by Aurangzab -> Musicians fled to countryside-> blended w/native music ECT: What happened to Language? Persian + native Ind. Lang.-> Urdu 14) Two policies by Aurangzab-> Mughal decline? 1) Overextension to S.-> Exhausted & 2) Persecution of Hindus-> long term strife b/w Hindus & Muslims

167 Video Quiz Bowl!!

168 What was odd about how Indians built their ships & why did they do it that way? They had no nails because they feared giant magnets would suck them down to the bottom of the sea

169 What are these called and what mystical movement of Islam are they part of? Whirling dervishes; Sufism

170 What fort is this & what did Babur call it?Gwalior; “the pearl of Indian forts

171 What incident does this illustrate? Akbar throwing a corrupt minister over a balcony to indicate he will rule in his own name now.

172 What incident does this illustrate? Akbar chasing another elephant while the bridge beneath him is collapsing.

173 What is this a picture of and what happened to it? Akbar’s new capital, Sikri Fathpur (Town of victory). It had to be abandoned after 15 years because the water supply was inadequate.

174 Who is being depicted in this Persian miniature and what seems odd about that? Alexander the Great in combat against Darius. Although Darius, not Alexander, was the Persian king, Alexander was adopted by the Persians as one of their own legendary heroes. What was the Persian form of Alexander’s name? Sikander

175 Noah’s sons throwing Satan from the ark. What does this Mughal painting depict?

176 Krishna lifting Mt Govardhan to protect his followers from Indra’s wrath.

177 What is this design called? Shamsa (sunburst)

178 Who built the Taj Mahal? Shah Jahan’s original plan was to create a duplicate tomb for himself opposite this one, except in black marble. What is its function? Shah Jahan Tomb for his wife. What is incomplete about it?


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