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Texas War of Independence CICERO © 2010. Background Stephen F. Austin There had been much animosity between the Mexican government and the Texans, settlers.

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Presentation on theme: "Texas War of Independence CICERO © 2010. Background Stephen F. Austin There had been much animosity between the Mexican government and the Texans, settlers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Texas War of Independence CICERO © 2010

2 Background Stephen F. Austin There had been much animosity between the Mexican government and the Texans, settlers from the United States. This feeling increased when President Antonio López de Santa Anna abolished the Mexican Constitution of 1824. He established a constitution that established him as a dictator. Also, many Southern whites were migrating to Texas, and they wanted to bring their slaves. However, slavery in Texas was outlawed. The Mexican government also required all landowners be Catholics. Settlers from the United States, most of whom wanted to buy land, had to at least claim to be Catholic. Since many were Protestants, and some very anti-Catholic, this requirement angered the American settlers. CICERO © 2010

3 Causes The Expansionist History of the United States The Special Circumstances of Post-Revolutionary Mexico. Racism Cultural Differences Governmental Differences Slavery The Physical Isolation of Texas CICERO © 2010

4 Gonzales October 2, 1835 The original cannon from Gonzales was found in 1936 after a rainstorm uncovered it a century after it was buried in a creek bed. The original Gonzales “Come and Take It” flag was sewn from a wedding gown. Gonzales was one of the earliest Anglo-American settlements in Texas. The Battle of Gonzales was a small conflict between Texas settlers and the Mexican army on October 2, 1835. This battle showed clear dissension between the Mexican government and the settlers in Texas. It began when the Mexicans wanted to retrieve a small smoothbore cannon after it had been given to the settlers to protect themselves against the Tonkawa Indians. After the settlers refused, Mexican Colonel Domingo de Ugartechea sent one hundred of his best soldiers to extract the cannon. Andrew Ponton, the alcalde, or the chief of Gonzales, refused; and the people of Gonzales adopted their famous, “Come and Take It” motto. On October 1 the Mexican army approached Gonzales, but with no intention of attacking the settlers. Instead, the settlers attacked the soldiers. Texan Colonel John Henry Moore proclaimed the Texans were defending their legal possession of the cannon and fighting to reinstate the Constitution of 1824. CICERO © 2008

5 Siege of the Alamo February 23 – March 6, 1836 Davy Crockett and his group of Tennessee volunteers fight to the last man against the final Mexican assault on the Alamo. Texan forces captured the Alamo in December 1835, and President Santa Anna marched his army to Texas. Santa Anna and his men reached the Alamo in late February 1836 and San Patricio by the end of the month. William Travis, Jim Bowie, and famed American frontiersman Davy Crockett led the Texans. The battle waged for twelve days; and on the final day March 6 the Mexican Army prepared for its final assault. The siege and the assault were a success, and all of the Texan soldiers were killed or executed, including Bowie, Travis, and Crockett. Women and children were spared but were ordered to warn other Texans that the Mexican army could not be beaten. The defeat angered many Texans; many began joining the fight against the Mexicans, but others quickly left the Mexican territory. CICERO © 2010

6 Goliad Massacre March 27, 1836 Colonel James Fannin Texan leader James Fannin and his men were forced to surrender to the Mexicans. They believed they would be held captive and eventually released. Held captive for a week, the prisoners were escorted back to Goliad. When President Santa Anna received word of the captives, he was angered to discover that the Texans were not executed on the spot. He had passed a law that all foreigners be treated as pirates and be immediately executed. Santa Anna ordered all prisoners be executed. On March 27, Palm Sunday, the orders were carried out. Fannin’s men were divided into three groups, marched out to a prairie, and shot at close range. The bodies were thrown in a pile and burned. Along with the Battle of the Alamo, the Goliad Massacre inspired Sam Houston’s army at the Battle of San Jacinto. CICERO © 2010

7 Battle of San Jacinto April 21, 1836 Sam Houston and the Texan army retreated east following the fall of the Alamo. On the morning of April 19, the Texans marched within a half mile of the San Jacinto River, where they prepared to fight the pursuing Mexican force. The next morning, Santa Anna’s troops marched across the prairie in a battle array. After a hail of Texas artillery brought him to a halt, Santa Anna formed his men in line for battle. Colonel Sidney Sherman of the Texas Cavalry, charged the Mexican army. This inspired the Texans for battle, but broke off the attack on the much larger Mexican force. Both sides withdrew and set up camp for the night. The next day about seven hundred and fifty Texans advanced on the Mexican camp, which had not posted sentries as the soldiers rested. Santa Anna assumed the smaller Texan force would not attack. He expected to attack and defeat them when he chose to do so. Houston sent a few men to destroy Vince’s Bridge, which would leave the Mexicans without an escape. When Houston gave his order to advance, “Remember the Alamo!” and “Remember Goliad!” were shouted. Taken by surprise, seven hundred of the 1,500 Mexicans were killed; and more than seven hundred and thirty were taken prisoner in a twenty-minute battle. The Battle for Texas was won!

8 Independence for Texas Days after the battle of San Jacinto, Texas, militia were still rounding up Mexican soldiers who had fled from the field. One Mexican wearing a private’s uniform stood out to many of his fellow soldiers. They identified him as General Santa Anna. He was immediately brought before a wounded Sam Houston who offered him his life in return for independence for Texas. Santa Anna quickly signed the Treaty of Velasco granting Texas its independence. CICERO © 2010

9 The Legacy The San Jacinto Monument stands even higher than the Washington Monument. Texas was prohibited from making the obelisk higher than the monument in Washington, D.C., so a star was added to make it taller. After Texas’ victory, Sam Houston was elected as the first President of the Republic of Texas. He later served in the Texas Congress. Once Texas joined the Union, Houston was elected a senator and then governor of the state. Prior to the Civil War, Houston opposed secession, so he was removed from office. Following the Texas War of Independence, Santa Anna was widely thought of as a ruthless dictator, but was still permitted to return to Texas after his capture. He participated in the Mexican- American War and was later exiled from Mexico. He was allowed to return before his death. CICERO © 2010

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