1 、细节理解题 (questions of details) 2 、词义猜测题 (words in context) 3 、推理判断题 (questions of inference) 4 、主旨归纳题 (main idea)

Presentation on theme: "1 、细节理解题 (questions of details) 2 、词义猜测题 (words in context) 3 、推理判断题 (questions of inference) 4 、主旨归纳题 (main idea)"— Presentation transcript:

1 、细节理解题 (questions of details) 2 、词义猜测题 (words in context) 3 、推理判断题 (questions of inference) 4 、主旨归纳题 (main idea)

1. questions of details 细节理解题 一般针对某个特定细节而提出，通读 短文后一般能直接找出答题依据。 推荐方法： ①通读全文，领悟大意，理解文章结构层 次及细节； ②并选用排除法排除不符合原文细节的选 项，剩下的就是要选择的最佳答案。

2. Words in context 词义猜测题 从考查内容看，主要是猜测某个生词、熟词、 短语或句子的意思以及猜测代词的指代。 解题技巧： ①充分利用文中已知信息推测、判断词义。 ②根据因果关系、对比关系、定义、解释和 复述来猜测词义。

1.Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the word…? 2.The word … could best be replaced by… 3.In the … paragraph, the word… means (refers to )… 4.According to the passage,…probably means… 5.The author uses the word… to mean… Question forms:

① Provide incentive. Tell your children the importance of saving. “For every dollar he or she agrees to save and invest rather than spend, you agree to add another dollar to the pot,” says Cathy Pareto, expert in money planning. （ 1 分钟） The underlined word “incentive” in this paragraph means ______. A.honor B. praise C. excitement D. encouragement

② Baker concludes that people do not have the ability to sense when they’re being stared at. If people doubt the outcome of his two experiments, said Baker, “I suggest they repeat the experiments and see for themselves.” （ 1 分钟） They underlined word “outcome” in the last paragraph most probably means _____. A. value B. result C. performance D. connection 阅读中常常会遇到一些由熟悉的单词派生、 转化或合成的新词。掌握构词法对猜测词义 很有帮助。

③ The house looked quite normal outside, but inside it was very exotic with fascinating objects on display. As he began putting them into his bag, a god came into the room. It stopped when it saw Buster, then wagged its tail madly and went over to him, licking his outstretched hand. “Good boy,” Buster whispered. “What a great guard dog you are --- trying to lick me to death.” （ 2 分钟） Which of the definitions is closest in meaning to the word “exotic” in the third paragraph? A. Messy and untidy. B. Rich and expensive. C. Comfortable and calming D. Foreign and unusual.

3. questions of inference 推理判断题

1. We can infer( 推断 )from the passage that ___. 2.The story suggests( 暗示 )that _______. 3.We can conclude( 得出结论 )from the passage that ____. 4.Which of the following might / probably happened later ? 5.From the passage we can tell / learn ______. 6.The writer of the passage considers it _______. 7. Which of the following indicates / implies____? Question forms: Key point : 意思要靠推断得出 ， 而不是从原文照搬

Steps: 1. Study the questions & understand them. 2. Find out key words or sentences according to them & analyse them carefully. 3. Delete the impossible choices if necessary. 4. Judge the remaining choices & make a choice that you think is the best.

1. Did you ever hear a strange sound coming from the wall? Did it sound like a clock? If so, it may have been made by a beetle. Long ago people thought the ticking meant that someone was about to die. Thus the beetle is called "the deathwatch beetle." （ 1 分钟） The sound of this beetle ________. A. pleased people. B. surprised people. C. frightened people. D. excited people. Practice:

2. It is said that people should take a lesson from the clock. The clock passes the time by keeping its hands busy. People who do what the clock does also pass the time by keeping their hands busy and not by sleeping the time away. （ 1.5 分钟） You can tell that busy people______ A. act like clocks. B. sleep the time away. C. don't do what clocks do. D. don't have hands.

3. It is fun to turn over a big rock on the beach. Make sure you turn the rock back to the position it was in after you moved it. If you don’t turn it back over, all the sea animals under it or clinging to （依附） the underside will die. （ 1.5 分钟） You can tell that rocks ________. A. hurt sea animals B. protect sea animals C. won’t be found on beaches D. can’t be found on beaches

4.Several different bison species have lived on the North American continent since the Ice Age; today only two exist. The wood bison is the larger of the two, and is now found mostly in western Canada. Better known in the United States is the Plains bison, or buffalo. At one time, herds of these animals could be sighed almost everywhere from the Appalachian Mountains in the East to the Rocky Mountains in the West. The author implies that several types of bison______. A. live outside the United Stated and Canada B. are well adapted to swampy terrain C. existed before the Ice Age D. have been killed or have died out 解析：短文谈到原来在北美大陆上有多种野牛生活着， 现在仅存两种，作者隐含达到的意思是几种野牛被杀绝 或灭绝， D 为正确答案。 A 、 B 、 C 和 D 与短文矛盾。

Steps: 1. Study the questions & understand them. 2. Find out key words or sentences according to them & analyse them carefully. 3. Delete the impossible choices if necessary. 4. Judge the remaining choices & make a choice that you think is the best.

4. How to get the main idea? 主旨归纳题

Characteristics of this kind of questions: 1. 该观点是作者的观点（不是他人的观点， 不是描写、说明，也不一定是事实）。 2. 该观点可能是作者提倡的，也可能是作者对 他人观点的批驳。 3. 作者的观点只能有一个，其他的内容都起 说明、论证作用。 4. 主旨句具有归纳性、概括性、抽象性的特点。 5. 常常结构复杂（命题者有意安排所致）。

Question forms: 1.The subject of the passage is ____. 2.The main idea is _____. 5.The title is _____. 3.The passage mainly talks about _____. 4.What topic is treated in this passage? 9.The point of the passage is that _____. 8.What’s the topic of the first paragraph? 6.The best headline for the passage would be ____. 7.Which title best gives the idea of the passage? 10.What’s the main point the writer is trying to make in the last paragraph? Two types: main idea; topic / title

1 Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your healt Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease(illness), cancer, cigarette smoking also can cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it? （ 1.5 分钟） Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. Practice ：

2 Often no one looks more guilty than the innocent. On the other hand, nobody may look more innocent than a professional criminal. And the man who knows “everything” may really only be trying to hide his own weakness. So, it is foolish to try to judge a person only by his appearance. （ 1 分钟） So, it is foolish to try to judge a person only by his appearance

4 Tom studied four years at the University of Paris and decided to leave before his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida. （ 2 分钟） The main idea of this paragraph is that ______. A. Tom, who had studied at Paris Universities for four years, moved to another university. B. Tom became a lawyer since his graduation from Harvard Law School and later from Boston College. C. Tom was an excellent student when he studied at Berlin university. D. Tom received an excellent education. detail

Types Of Paragraph Structures typeThe position of the topicInformation words At the beginning At the end In the middle No clear topic sentence for example…… so, therefore,……

How to get the main idea of a passage?

details Paragraph ideas Passage idea

5 ① Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship. ② Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the trip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Good Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died. ③ Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball. （ 4 分钟） Which of the following do you think is the best title for this passage? A. Magellan’s death B. Going Around The World C. The World Is Round D. Magellan’s Voyage

① Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship. Magellan’s voyage was the first trip around the world.

② Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the tip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Good Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died. 1. time 2. ships and people 3. route 4. Sufferings and difficulties a. Lack of food and freshwater b. Hunger and diseases c. Deaths The process of Magellan’s long difficult voyage 5. success

③ Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball. Magellan’s voyage proved the earth is round.

① Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship. ② Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the tip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Goed Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died. ③ Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball. Paragraph 1: Magellan’s voyage was the first trip around the world. Paragraph 2: The process of Magellan’s long difficult voyage Paragraph 3: Magellan’s voyaged proved the earth is round. Magellan’s voyage

5 Magellan’s men were the first to make the trip around the world. It took them more than two years to do so by ship. Magellan was from Portugal, but he sailed for the King of Spain. On September 20, 1519, he left Spain with five ships and 240 men. After passing the trip of South America, they reached the Pacific Ocean, on which they sailed more than one year. Very often they could not see a piece of land for months and they suffered greatly from the lack of food and fresh water. Many of them died of hunger and diseases. They even had to live on sawdust. Finally in April 1521, Magellan got to the Philippine Islands, where he was killed. His men fled and continued their voyage across the Indian Ocean. It was with the greatest difficulty that they passed the Cape of Good Hope. By the time they returned to Spain on December 21,1521, seven out of every eight men had died. Magellan’s voyage proved that men could sail around the world and that our earth is but a huge ball. Which of the following do you think is the best title for this passage? A. Magellan’s death B. Going Around The World C. The World Is Round D. Magellan’s Voyage (too narrow) (too broad) (proper)