Presentation on theme: "Nation-Building & Democracy in Africa & the Middle East"— Presentation transcript:
1Nation-Building & Democracy in Africa & the Middle East Decolonization
2Berlin Conference The Berlin Conference (1884-5) "The Berlin Conference was Africa's undoing in more ways than one. The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate satisfactorily." (H.J. de Blij and Peter O. Muller, Geography: Realms, Regions, and Concepts (1997) p. 340).In 1884 at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany's sphere of influence over Africa and desired to force Germany's rivals to struggle with one another for territory.
3Berlin ConferenceAt the time of the conference, 80% of Africa remained under traditional and local control. What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into fifty irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over the one thousand indigenous cultures and regions of Africa. The new countries lacked rhyme or reason and divided coherent groups of people and merged together disparate groups who really did not get along.Fourteen countries were represented by a plethora of ambassadors when the conference opened in Berlin on November 15, The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from ), Turkey, and the United States of America. Of these fourteen nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time.
4Berlin ConferenceThe initial task of the conference was to agree that the Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade. Despite its neutrality, part of the Congo Basin became a personal kingdom for Belgium's King Leopold II and under his rule, over half of the region's population died.At the time of the conference, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers. At the Berlin Conference the European colonial powers scrambled to gain control over the interior of the continent. The conference lasted until February 26, a three month period where colonial powers haggled over geometric boundaries in the interior of the continent, disregarding the cultural and linguistic boundaries already established by the indigenous African population.Following the conference, the give and take continued. By 1914, the conference participants had fully divided Africa among themselves into fifty countries.
5Berlin Conference Major colonial holdings included: Great Britain desired a Cape-to-Cairo collection of colonies and almost succeeded though their control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa, and Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana (Rhodesia). The British also controlled Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast).France took much of western Africa, from Mauritania to Chad (French West Africa) and Gabon and the Republic of Congo (French Equatorial Africa).Belgium and King Leopold II controlled the Democratic Republic of Congo (Belgian Congo).Portugal took Mozambique in the east and Angola in the west.Italy's holdings were Somalia (Italian Somaliland) and a portion of Ethiopia.Germany took Namibia (German Southwest Africa) and Tanzania (German East Africa).Spain claimed the smallest territory - Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni).
6Democracy – 4 requirements Free electionsMore than 1 political party; universal suffrageCitizen participationHigh levels of educ/literacy; freedoms of speech, press & assemblyMajority rule w/ minority rightsAll citizens equal before the law; shared national identity; individual rightsConstitutional govtClear laws on which govt is based; educ about how govt works; national acceptance of majority decisions; policy that no one is above the law
8AfricaLike Asia, African nations were unwilling to return to colonial rule after WWII. Problems with nation-building in Africa:Borders drawn by Europeans for their colonial needs not for ethnic groupsResources drained by EuropeansPeople of Africa not experienced with self-rule
9GhanaKwame Nkrumah – educated in US; led independence movement; became 1st prime minister/president1966 while visiting Vietnam, army seized power2000 1st free elections heldKenya – Jomo Kenyatta, leader of independence movement – educated London; 1963 became 1st pres. – Nairobi (capital) major business center in Africa
10Congo 1960 independence from Belgium Power struggle between two groups (one asked USSR for aid)Mobutu came to power & renamed country Zaire; police state; economy should have been fine (mineral wealth) but Mobutu & his cronies robbed the country of billionsOverthrown in 1997; civil war status; no free elections
11Algeria French colony – 1 million French; 9 million Arab muslims 1945 French troops fired on Algerian nationalists; thousands died in fightingIndependence 1962; French settlers fledAhmed Ben Bella – 1st pres. – land reforms, education plan, export oil1965 – overthrown1988 after economic depression, civil war between Islamic militants & govt1997 elections excluded reps from Islamic party; calls for peace talks; thousands have died
12Angola Portuguese colony- no health, education or economic system 1960s 3 groups struggled to take power – each supported by diff. superpowerPortuguese leave in 1975 w/out formally naming a govtCommunist group seized powerCease-fire 1989Civil war 1995 – 2000s
15Rwanda German colony, then Belgium colony after WWI The Hutu and Tutsi - two different ethnic groups of Rwanda based on economic factors – not DNAAgricultural people were considered HutuProperty/cattle-owning elite were considered Tutsi.Belgians had everyone carry an identity card indicating whether they were Hutu or Tutsi.Tutsis were used by the Belgium govt to run the colony, as they had been the kings to rule the lands for hundreds of years.
16Rwanda –Civil WarHutu-led revolt in 1959 to establish an independent Hutu-state by 1962, after killing thousands of Tutsis in the process.1990, Tutsi-led Rwanda Patriotic Front launches a civil war leading to the 1994 genocideHutu extremists killed nearly 1 million Tutsis and moderate HutusRPF ended the genocide with a military victory for the Tutsis
17Rwandan genocideApprox. one million men, women, and children were massacred.RadioMachetes
19Rwanda Today 84% Hutus; 15% Tutsis Parliamentary Republic, gained independence from Belgium in 1962Economy is based on subsistence agricultureCoffee & teaTourism…especially for mountain gorillas
20South Africa Small minority white population – ruled SA Afrikaners (white ruling class) determined to keep control of SA after independence1950s laws of APARTHEID – separated blacks & whites (segregation)Protesters against apartheid laws created ANC - African National CongressANC demonstrators were brutally repressed1962 – leader of anti-apartheid movement – Nelson Mandela arrested
21Nelson MandelaMandela served 27 yrs in maximum security prison; wife & children not allowed to see him; his son & mom died – not allowed to attend their funerals1989 – new white President FW de Klerk elected – wanted to transform SA & end its isolation in the world1990 ANC was legalized; Mandela released1994 – Mandela elected President of the Republic of SABishop Desmond Tutu (Nobel Peace Prize 1984) worked to free Mandela & end apartheidWorld pressures/economic boycotts led to end of apartheid
23South African democracy today 1996 – new constitution guarantees equal rights to ALL citizens – right to travel freelyDiscrimination is forbidden; rights of children are protectedProtects rights for adequate housing, education & healthcareWomen – right to vote & run for political officeFew women have been electedStill job & wage discriminationRural areas – families still choose a woman’s husband
24Problems in Africa today EconomicOne crop economies; resources spent on building up military instead of on education, infrastructure, industrialization, hospitalsHigh populations cripple economies – occasional droughts/disease kill millions of peoplePoverty is worse in rural areasEconomic problems lead to political unrest – civil war
25Health problemsAIDS (acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome) epidemic – 2/3 of all people worldwide infected with HIV live in AfricaImpact on children & families – 12 million+ children are orphans because both parents died of AIDSGovts do not have enough resources to combat HIV/AIDSUganda has been most successful because Pres. Confronted AIDS immediately & started health & sex education
26Political problemsMany African nations that started out as democratic govt after independence have fallen to military dictatorships or one-party statesConflict among ethnic groupsNigeria 1960s – Northerners started killing Ibo group – Ibo fled to Eastern Nigeria & tried to form a separate nation – 2+ yrs of bloody civil war; Ibo lostRwanda/Burundi – Hutu & Tutsi people Burundi – Tutsi; Rwanda – Hutu but both groups lived in both countries1994-Genocide in Rwanda as Hutu majority started ethnic cleansing campaign against Tutsis – Watch Hotel Rwanda!!Cold War problems:USSR supported Ethiopia; US set up military bases in Somalia
27The United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights After WWII - United Nationswanted to set standards forhuman rights for all nations of world10 Articlesall people born free & equalno discriminationright to life, liberty, securityno tortureequality before lawno arbitrary arrests/detentionsgenocide
28Decolonization of the Middle East after WWII SyriaSyria attained independence from the French in 1936 French/British protectorate through WWIIDamascus – oldest capital in the worldLebanon – prosperity - tourism, agriculture & banking capital of the Arab worldLebanese Civil WarImmediately following the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict - civilian and military casualties, extensive damage to infrastructure, and massive population displacement (mostly people fled to Syriaceasefire went into effect on August 14, 2006.
30Revolution in Iran Oil revenues – rich country – allied w/ US 1970s Iranians dissatisfied with their ruler –Mohammad Reva Pahlavi (Shah) – secular, Western govtMuslim religious movement led by Ayatollah Khomeini rose to power – return Iran to anti-Western waysProtesters against Shah shouted ‘death to the shah, death to the Americans’Iran-Contra Affair – sell arms illegally to Khomeini and send $ to Contras in Nicaragua – Reagan authorized CIA to do this illegally
31The Shah is forced out - 1979 Jan 1979 Shah left Iran April – Khomeini seized control & declared Iran to be an Islamic republic – Shah’s supporters executed/fledIranian revolutionaries seized US embassy in Tehran – 52 Americans taken hostage – held almost 2 yrs1989 – Khomeini died; new govt opened society; today Iran has gone back to a closed society – people have very few freedoms
32The birth of Israel•For centuries, Arabs & Jews & Christians have considered Palestine their “holy land”•Zionism – a movement that argued for a Jewish homeland•Palestine colonized by GB•Balfour Declaration 1917GB would allow Jewish people to establish a homeland BUT it could not interfere with civil & religious of non-Jewish people
341920s & 1930s – many Jews immigrated to Palestine to escape persecution in Europe After WWII & Holocaust – world felt sympathetic toward Zionist cause1948 – UN resolution divided Palestine into 2 states – Arab & JewishMay 1948 – David Ben-Gurion – 1st prime minister of Israel
35Arab reaction to Israel Betrayal of promises made by British govt – nation of Palestine was NOT createdMuslim majority population robbed of their lands – hundred of thousands forced to move, had to live in refugee camps, thousands diedPalestinians who refused to leave came under Israeli ruleSeveral Arab nations invaded Israel to try to stop its creation – failedMost Arab nations do not recognize Israel’s right to exist
36Egypt Early 1950s - Gamal Abdel Nasser President 1956 – took control of Suez CanalMajor waterway linking Mediterranean Sea & AsiaGB, France, Israel joined to take back Suez canal – Suez WarUS & USSR supported Egypt! – wanted more involvement in Middle East – oilNasser led a Pan-Arabism movement but oil-rich countries did not want to share their oil wealth with other countries
38Arab (Palestinian) - Israeli dispute intensifies 1967 – Nasser blockaded Israeli ships from Gulf of Aqaba – Six Day WarIsrael launched pre-emptive war against Egypt, Syria, Iraq & JordanMost of Egyptian air force destroyedIsraeli army occupied Sinai PeninsulaIsrael seized territory on West Bank of Jordan River, occupied Jerusalem, took Golan Heights – strategic military areaOne million more Palestinians now lived under Israeli rule
42Anwar Sadat Nasser assassinated in Cairo Anwar el-Sadat became president of Egypt1973 – Sadat led a new attack on Israel to try to get occupied land back1974 – United Nations negotiated cease-fireSadat assassinated because of peace with Israel
44Peace in Middle East?November 1967, the UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 242.Two conditions for establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East.First, it called for the "withdrawal of Israel armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict.“Second, it called for the "termination of all belligerency and respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force." ►Israel did not withdraw from the occupied territories. The Six Day War led to the Yom Kippur War in 1973
45Israel - peace with Egypt and returned the Sinai. Peace with Jordan, but did not return East Jerusalem – site of 3rd holiest shrine in Islam.Israeli occupation of this holy site continues to fuel strong resentment against Israel in the entire Muslim world.A generation of Palestinians has grown up in the West Bank and Gaza under Israeli occupation.No hope for the future, some Palestinians have resorted to carrying out suicide bombings since September 2000.The bombings have killed hundreds of Israelis and brought on Israeli retaliation, killing thousands of Palestinians. This cycle of violence shows no signs of letting up.
49GIVE 1, GET 2 Revolution in Iran Balfour Declaration Birth of Israel & Arab reactionZionismAyatollah KhomeiniSix-Day WarSadatNasserSuez Canal
50What does OIL have to do with the Middle East peace crisis??? At 2003 consumption levels, the remaining reserves represent 44.6 years of oil and 66.2 years of natural gas.China has just started using major amounts of oil; India is also using oil at high levelsUS has always used the most oil and continues to use the most in 2006Does the U.S. have the highest population in the world?
51China - 1,313,973,713India - 1,095,351,995United States - as of Nov ,176,035Indonesia - 245,452,739Brazil - 188,078,227Pakistan - 165,803,560Bangladesh - 147,365,352Russia - 142,893,540Nigeria - 131,859,731Japan - 127,463,611Mexico - 107,449,525Philippines - 89,468,677Vietnam - 84,402,966Germany - 82,422,299Egypt - 78,887,007Ethiopia - 74,777,981Turkey - 70,413,958Iran - 68,688,433Thailand - 64,631,595Democratic Republic of the Congo - 62,660,551
53OPEC1960 – oil-rich nations formed – Organization of Petroleum Exporting CountriesPurpose – control the price of oilDuring 1973 conflict – OPEC increased price of oil – shortages of oil/gasoline in West1977 – Jimmy Carter sponsored Camp David Accords – peace treaty between Egypt & IsraelOther Arab countries angry at Egypt for signing treaty
58PLO1964 Palestine Liberation Front – para military group formed to represent the interests of the Palestinian peopleLeader – Yasir ArafatUsed terrorist attacks on Israel to try to win back territorial losses & establish a Palestinian nationIntifada – uprising – escalation in protests – increased guerrilla warfare tactics
59Peace talks US sponsored peace talks Pres. Clinton 1993 – Israel agreed to give Palestinians some autonomy in certain areasPLO recognized IsraelPalestinian Authority – semi-independent territory – Yasir Arafat – leaderUltimate goal of Clinton – a Palestinian nation & Arab recognition of IsraelProblem: some Israelis don’t want to give back territory gained in 1967; some Arabs refuse to recognize Israel’s right to exist
60Terrorism used by BOTH sides Terrorism – intimidate states & institutions to help solve their political goalsBombings, hostage taking, plane hijackingTerrorism in other areasIreland – Irish Republican ArmyAfghanistan – TalibanSri Lanka – Tamal Tiger rebels
62Middle Eastern terrorism against the West – WHY?? After WWII – US & W. Europe depended on ME oilUS invested heavily in oil-wealthy nations & formed alliances with wealthy Arab sheiksBUT – most Arab people remain poor and are angry at their govts & US for not sharing the wealthSome Muslims fear that US involvement in ME would weaken Islam (fear of westernization)Arabs resent US support of IsraelMost Muslims around the world DO NOT support terrorism
63Iraq Leader – Saddam Hussein 1979 – 2004 Border with Iran – tense border issues/tense religious issuesIRAN power majority SHIITE muslimIRAQ power majority SUNNI muslim **changed since 2004**Sunnis are only 20% of IRAQ’s population1980 – Hussein attacked IranChildren used to clear mine fieldsPoison gas used against civilians (esp. Kurdish people in North)1988 – cease-fire
64Iraq invades Kuwait 1990 – Gulf War US (Pres. Bush #1) led an international force that forced Saddam Hussein to withdraw his troops from Kuwait – Hussein claimed Kuwait was oil drilling diagonally into Iraq territoryLarge part of Iraq’s army destroyedUS hoped an internal revolt would overthrow Hussein, but he stayed in power1990s UN weapons inspectors were monitoring Iraq’s weapons programs
65The Iraq War – ???GW Bush demanded a resolution from UN that Hussein give up all weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)Warned that US would go into Iraq alone if UN did not approve resolutionOct 2002 – US Congress authorized use of force against IraqUN authorized resolution calling for return of UN weapons inspectorsWeapons inspectors returned to Iraq but Bush argued that Hussein was hiding WMDs from inspectors – inspectors asked for more time to evaluate situation
67Bush requests UN go to war Bush argued that Iraq posed “an immediate threat” and tried to link Iraq to the 9/11 attacksFrance & Russia wanted to wait for inspectors to have time to do their jobUS & GB along with minimal support from other countries prepared for warAntiwar protesters around the world argued that war was unjustified – Iraq not involved in 9/11March 20, 2003 – US led coalition attacked IraqMay 1, 2003 – Bush declared major fighting over – Baghdad had fallen
69No WMDs found American/coalition forces have not found WMDs Jan 2004 – David Kay, Bush’s top weapons inspector – “we’re very unlikely to find large stockpiles of weapons. I don’t think they exist.”Kay – US intelligence provided “flawed” information to Congress & PresidentInitially, many Iraqis happy that Saddam was outMost Iraqis angered to learn that US & GB would be staying in Iraq to set up a new govtInsurgency: different groups (Shiite, Sunni, Kurd) who are fighting US & British troops in Iraq because they are afraid an American-designed govt will not represent their interests
70Women in Islamic nations In Muhammad’s time women had extensive political & social rightsRestrictions on women came later20th century – some Muslim countries have started to reduce restrictions on women – Turkey/Iran1970s shift back toward more restrictions for women esp. in Iran
72War in Afghanistan1980s - USSR invasion & withdrawal – Taliban came to power – militant Islamic party – women rights gone; no school for girlsOsama bin Laden – Saudi Arabian – one of wealthiest families in Middle East1988 – founded al-QaedaAfter USSR forced to withdraw bin Laden convinced that superpowers could be beatenBelieved that western ideas contaminated Muslim societyOutraged that Saudi govt allowed US troops in when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait
731998 Bin Laden called on Muslims to kill Americans Bombs at US embassies in Kenya & Tanzania – 224 people killedPres. Clinton ordered cruise missile attacks on Afghanistan & SudanOct 2000, al-Qaeda crashed a boat into USS Cole while it was docked near YemenUN demanded in 1999 & 2000 that Taliban turn bin Laden in for trial – Taliban refused
749/11 Attacks4 hijacked planes – target US economic heart & govt centerPres. Bush called state of emergency – Congress authorized use of forceOct 2001 – US & UN launched attack against al-Qaeda & Taliban in AfghanistanTaliban forced out of power – new govt createdMany Afghans celebrated collapse of Talliban – men no longer had to wear beards; women no longer had to wear burkasToday – UN peacekeepers; poverty; Taliban resurgence; cocaine production