Presentation on theme: "Nation-Building & Democracy in Africa & the Middle East Decolonization."— Presentation transcript:
Nation-Building & Democracy in Africa & the Middle East Decolonization
Berlin Conference The Berlin Conference (1884-5) "The Berlin Conference was Africa's undoing in more ways than one. The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate satisfactorily." (H.J. de Blij and Peter O. Muller, Geography: Realms, Regions, and Concepts (1997) p. 340). In 1884 at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany's sphere of influence over Africa and desired to force Germany's rivals to struggle with one another for territory.
Berlin Conference At the time of the conference, 80% of Africa remained under traditional and local control. What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into fifty irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over the one thousand indigenous cultures and regions of Africa. The new countries lacked rhyme or reason and divided coherent groups of people and merged together disparate groups who really did not get along. Fourteen countries were represented by a plethora of ambassadors when the conference opened in Berlin on November 15, 1884. The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and the United States of America. Of these fourteen nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time.
Berlin Conference The initial task of the conference was to agree that the Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade. Despite its neutrality, part of the Congo Basin became a personal kingdom for Belgium's King Leopold II and under his rule, over half of the region's population died. At the time of the conference, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers. At the Berlin Conference the European colonial powers scrambled to gain control over the interior of the continent. The conference lasted until February 26, 1885 - a three month period where colonial powers haggled over geometric boundaries in the interior of the continent, disregarding the cultural and linguistic boundaries already established by the indigenous African population. Following the conference, the give and take continued. By 1914, the conference participants had fully divided Africa among themselves into fifty countries.
Berlin Conference Major colonial holdings included: – Great Britain desired a Cape-to-Cairo collection of colonies and almost succeeded though their control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa, and Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana (Rhodesia). The British also controlled Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast). – France took much of western Africa, from Mauritania to Chad (French West Africa) and Gabon and the Republic of Congo (French Equatorial Africa). – Belgium and King Leopold II controlled the Democratic Republic of Congo (Belgian Congo). – Portugal took Mozambique in the east and Angola in the west. – Italy's holdings were Somalia (Italian Somaliland) and a portion of Ethiopia. – Germany took Namibia (German Southwest Africa) and Tanzania (German East Africa). – Spain claimed the smallest territory - Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni).
Democracy – 4 requirements Free elections – More than 1 political party; universal suffrage Citizen participation – High levels of educ/literacy; freedoms of speech, press & assembly Majority rule w/ minority rights – All citizens equal before the law; shared national identity; individual rights Constitutional govt – Clear laws on which govt is based; educ about how govt works; national acceptance of majority decisions; policy that no one is above the law
Africa Like Asia, African nations were unwilling to return to colonial rule after WWII. Problems with nation-building in Africa: – Borders drawn by Europeans for their colonial needs not for ethnic groups – Resources drained by Europeans – People of Africa not experienced with self-rule
Ghana Kwame Nkrumah – educated in US; led independence movement; became 1 st prime minister/president 1966 while visiting Vietnam, army seized power 2000 1 st free elections held Kenya – Jomo Kenyatta, leader of independence movement – educated London; 1963 became 1 st pres. – Nairobi (capital) major business center in Africa
Congo 1960 independence from Belgium Power struggle between two groups (one asked USSR for aid) Mobutu came to power & renamed country Zaire; police state; economy should have been fine (mineral wealth) but Mobutu & his cronies robbed the country of billions Overthrown in 1997; civil war status; no free elections
Algeria French colony – 1 million French; 9 million Arab muslims 1945 French troops fired on Algerian nationalists; thousands died in fighting Independence 1962; French settlers fled Ahmed Ben Bella – 1 st pres. – land reforms, education plan, export oil 1965 – overthrown 1988 after economic depression, civil war between Islamic militants & govt 1997 elections excluded reps from Islamic party; calls for peace talks; thousands have died
Angola Portuguese colony- no health, education or economic system 1960s 3 groups struggled to take power – each supported by diff. superpower Portuguese leave in 1975 w/out formally naming a govt Communist group seized power Cease-fire 1989 Civil war 1995 – 2000s
Rwanda German colony, then Belgium colony after WWI The Hutu and Tutsi - two different ethnic groups of Rwanda based on economic factors – not DNA Agricultural people were considered Hutu Property/cattle-owning elite were considered Tutsi. Belgians had everyone carry an identity card indicating whether they were Hutu or Tutsi. Tutsis were used by the Belgium govt to run the colony, as they had been the kings to rule the lands for hundreds of years.
Rwanda –Civil War Hutu-led revolt in 1959 to establish an independent Hutu-state by 1962, after killing thousands of Tutsis in the process. 1990, Tutsi-led Rwanda Patriotic Front launches a civil war leading to the 1994 genocide – Hutu extremists killed nearly 1 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus RPF ended the genocide with a military victory for the Tutsis
Rwandan genocide - 1994 Approx. one million men, women, and children were massacred. Radio Machetes
Rwanda Today 84% Hutus; 15% Tutsis Parliamentary Republic, gained independence from Belgium in 1962 Economy is based on subsistence agriculture – Coffee & tea – Tourism…especially for mountain gorillas
South Africa Small minority white population – ruled SA Afrikaners (white ruling class) determined to keep control of SA after independence 1950s laws of APARTHEID – separated blacks & whites (segregation) Protesters against apartheid laws created ANC - African National Congress ANC demonstrators were brutally repressed 1962 – leader of anti-apartheid movement – Nelson Mandela arrested
Nelson Mandela Mandela served 27 yrs in maximum security prison; wife & children not allowed to see him; his son & mom died – not allowed to attend their funerals 1989 – new white President FW de Klerk elected – wanted to transform SA & end its isolation in the world 1990 ANC was legalized; Mandela released 1994 – Mandela elected President of the Republic of SA Bishop Desmond Tutu (Nobel Peace Prize 1984) worked to free Mandela & end apartheid World pressures/economic boycotts led to end of apartheid
South African democracy today 1996 – new constitution guarantees equal rights to ALL citizens – right to travel freely Discrimination is forbidden; rights of children are protected Protects rights for adequate housing, education & healthcare Women – right to vote & run for political office Few women have been elected Still job & wage discrimination Rural areas – families still choose a woman’s husband
Problems in Africa today Economic – One crop economies; resources spent on building up military instead of on education, infrastructure, industrialization, hospitals – High populations cripple economies – occasional droughts/disease kill millions of people – Poverty is worse in rural areas – Economic problems lead to political unrest – civil war
Health problems AIDS (acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome) epidemic – 2/3 of all people worldwide infected with HIV live in Africa – Impact on children & families – 12 million+ children are orphans because both parents died of AIDS – Govts do not have enough resources to combat HIV/AIDS – Uganda has been most successful because Pres. Confronted AIDS immediately & started health & sex education
Political problems Many African nations that started out as democratic govt after independence have fallen to military dictatorships or one-party states – Conflict among ethnic groups Nigeria 1960s – Northerners started killing Ibo group – Ibo fled to Eastern Nigeria & tried to form a separate nation – 2+ yrs of bloody civil war; Ibo lost Rwanda/Burundi – Hutu & Tutsi people Burundi – Tutsi; Rwanda – Hutu but both groups lived in both countries 1994-Genocide in Rwanda as Hutu majority started ethnic cleansing campaign against Tutsis – Watch Hotel Rwanda!! – Cold War problems: USSR supported Ethiopia; US set up military bases in Somalia
The United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights After WWII - United Nations wanted to set standards for human rights for all nations of world 10 Articles – all people born free & equal – no discrimination – right to life, liberty, security – no torture – equality before law – no arbitrary arrests/detentions – genocide
Decolonization of the Middle East after WWII Syria – Syria attained independence from the French in 1936 French/British protectorate through WWII – Damascus – oldest capital in the world Damascus Lebanon – prosperity - tourism, agriculture & banking capital of the Arab world Lebanese Civil War 1975-199019751990 Immediately following the end of the war, there were extensive efforts to revive the economy and rebuild 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict - civilian and military casualties, extensive damage to infrastructure, and massive population displacement (mostly people fled to Syria 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict ceasefire went into effect on August 14, 2006.August 142006
Revolution in Iran Oil revenues – rich country – allied w/ US 1970s Iranians dissatisfied with their ruler – Mohammad Reva Pahlavi (Shah) – secular, Western govt Muslim religious movement led by Ayatollah Khomeini rose to power – return Iran to anti-Western ways Protesters against Shah shouted ‘death to the shah, death to the Americans’ Iran-Contra Affair – sell arms illegally to Khomeini and send $ to Contras in Nicaragua – Reagan authorized CIA to do this illegally
The Shah is forced out - 1979 Jan 1979 Shah left Iran April – Khomeini seized control & declared Iran to be an Islamic republic – Shah’s supporters executed/fled Iranian revolutionaries seized US embassy in Tehran – 52 Americans taken hostage – held almost 2 yrs 1989 – Khomeini died; new govt opened society; today Iran has gone back to a closed society – people have very few freedoms
The birth of Israel For centuries, Arabs & Jews & Christians have considered Palestine their “holy land” Zionism – a movement that argued for a Jewish homeland Palestine colonized by GB Balfour Declaration 1917 GB would allow Jewish people to establish a homeland BUT it could not interfere with civil & religious of non-Jewish people
1920s & 1930s – many Jews immigrated to Palestine to escape persecution in Europe After WWII & Holocaust – world felt sympathetic toward Zionist cause 1948 – UN resolution divided Palestine into 2 states – Arab & Jewish May 1948 – David Ben-Gurion – 1 st prime minister of Israel
Arab reaction to Israel Betrayal of promises made by British govt – nation of Palestine was NOT created Muslim majority population robbed of their lands – hundred of thousands forced to move, had to live in refugee camps, thousands died Palestinians who refused to leave came under Israeli rule Several Arab nations invaded Israel to try to stop its creation – failed Most Arab nations do not recognize Israel’s right to exist
Egypt Early 1950s - Gamal Abdel Nasser President 1956 – took control of Suez Canal – Major waterway linking Mediterranean Sea & Asia GB, France, Israel joined to take back Suez canal – Suez War US & USSR supported Egypt! – wanted more involvement in Middle East – oil Nasser led a Pan-Arabism movement but oil-rich countries did not want to share their oil wealth with other countries
Arab (Palestinian) - Israeli dispute intensifies 1967 – Nasser blockaded Israeli ships from Gulf of Aqaba – Six Day War Israel launched pre-emptive war against Egypt, Syria, Iraq & Jordan Most of Egyptian air force destroyed Israeli army occupied Sinai Peninsula Israel seized territory on West Bank of Jordan River, occupied Jerusalem, took Golan Heights – strategic military area One million more Palestinians now lived under Israeli rule
Anwar Sadat Nasser assassinated in Cairo Anwar el-Sadat became president of Egypt 1973 – Sadat led a new attack on Israel to try to get occupied land back 1974 – United Nations negotiated cease-fire Sadat assassinated because of peace with Israel
Peace in Middle East? November 1967, the UN Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 242. Two conditions for establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East. – First, it called for the "withdrawal of Israel armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict.“ – Second, it called for the "termination of all belligerency and respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force." ►Israel did not withdraw from the occupied territories. The Six Day War led to the Yom Kippur War in 1973
Israel - peace with Egypt and returned the Sinai. Peace with Jordan, but did not return East Jerusalem – site of 3 rd holiest shrine in Islam. Israeli occupation of this holy site continues to fuel strong resentment against Israel in the entire Muslim world. A generation of Palestinians has grown up in the West Bank and Gaza under Israeli occupation. No hope for the future, some Palestinians have resorted to carrying out suicide bombings since September 2000. The bombings have killed hundreds of Israelis and brought on Israeli retaliation, killing thousands of Palestinians. This cycle of violence shows no signs of letting up.
GIVE 1, GET 2 Revolution in Iran Balfour Declaration Birth of Israel & Arab reaction Zionism Ayatollah Khomeini Six-Day War Sadat Nasser Suez Canal
What does OIL have to do with the Middle East peace crisis??? At 2003 consumption levels, the remaining reserves represent 44.6 years of oil and 66.2 years of natural gas. China has just started using major amounts of oil; India is also using oil at high levels US has always used the most oil and continues to use the most in 2006 Does the U.S. have the highest population in the world?
China - 1,313,973,713 China India - 1,095,351,995 India United States - as of Nov. 2006 - 300,176,035 United States Indonesia - 245,452,739 Indonesia Brazil - 188,078,227 Brazil Pakistan - 165,803,560 Pakistan Bangladesh - 147,365,352 Bangladesh Russia - 142,893,540 Russia Nigeria - 131,859,731 Nigeria Japan - 127,463,611 Japan Mexico - 107,449,525 Mexico Philippines - 89,468,677 Philippines Vietnam - 84,402,966 Vietnam Germany - 82,422,299 Germany Egypt - 78,887,007 Egypt Ethiopia - 74,777,981 Ethiopia Turkey - 70,413,958 Turkey Iran - 68,688,433 Iran Thailand - 64,631,595 Thailand Democratic Republic of the Congo - 62,660,551 Democratic Republic of the Congo
OPEC 1960 – oil-rich nations formed – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries Purpose – control the price of oil During 1973 conflict – OPEC increased price of oil – shortages of oil/gasoline in West 1977 – Jimmy Carter sponsored Camp David Accords – peace treaty between Egypt & Israel Other Arab countries angry at Egypt for signing treaty
PLO 1964 Palestine Liberation Front – para military group formed to represent the interests of the Palestinian people Leader – Yasir Arafat Used terrorist attacks on Israel to try to win back territorial losses & establish a Palestinian nation Intifada – uprising – escalation in protests – increased guerrilla warfare tactics
Peace talks US sponsored peace talks Pres. Clinton 1993 – Israel agreed to give Palestinians some autonomy in certain areas PLO recognized Israel Palestinian Authority – semi-independent territory – Yasir Arafat – leader Ultimate goal of Clinton – a Palestinian nation & Arab recognition of Israel Problem: some Israelis don’t want to give back territory gained in 1967; some Arabs refuse to recognize Israel’s right to exist
Terrorism used by BOTH sides Terrorism – intimidate states & institutions to help solve their political goals Bombings, hostage taking, plane hijacking Terrorism in other areas – Ireland – Irish Republican Army – Afghanistan – Taliban – Sri Lanka – Tamal Tiger rebels
Middle Eastern terrorism against the West – WHY?? After WWII – US & W. Europe depended on ME oil US invested heavily in oil-wealthy nations & formed alliances with wealthy Arab sheiks BUT – most Arab people remain poor and are angry at their govts & US for not sharing the wealth Some Muslims fear that US involvement in ME would weaken Islam (fear of westernization) Arabs resent US support of Israel Most Muslims around the world DO NOT support terrorism
Iraq Leader – Saddam Hussein 1979 – 2004 Border with Iran – tense border issues/tense religious issues – IRAN power majority SHIITE muslim – IRAQ power majority SUNNI muslim **changed since 2004**Sunnis are only 20% of IRAQ’s population 1980 – Hussein attacked Iran – Children used to clear mine fields – Poison gas used against civilians (esp. Kurdish people in North) 1988 – cease-fire
Iraq invades Kuwait 1990 – Gulf War US (Pres. Bush #1) led an international force that forced Saddam Hussein to withdraw his troops from Kuwait – Hussein claimed Kuwait was oil drilling diagonally into Iraq territory Large part of Iraq’s army destroyed US hoped an internal revolt would overthrow Hussein, but he stayed in power 1990s UN weapons inspectors were monitoring Iraq’s weapons programs
The Iraq War – 2003 - ??? GW Bush demanded a resolution from UN that Hussein give up all weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) Warned that US would go into Iraq alone if UN did not approve resolution Oct 2002 – US Congress authorized use of force against Iraq UN authorized resolution calling for return of UN weapons inspectors Weapons inspectors returned to Iraq but Bush argued that Hussein was hiding WMDs from inspectors – inspectors asked for more time to evaluate situation
Bush requests UN go to war Bush argued that Iraq posed “an immediate threat” and tried to link Iraq to the 9/11 attacks France & Russia wanted to wait for inspectors to have time to do their job US & GB along with minimal support from other countries prepared for war Antiwar protesters around the world argued that war was unjustified – Iraq not involved in 9/11 March 20, 2003 – US led coalition attacked Iraq May 1, 2003 – Bush declared major fighting over – Baghdad had fallen
No WMDs found American/coalition forces have not found WMDs Jan 2004 – David Kay, Bush’s top weapons inspector – “we’re very unlikely to find large stockpiles of weapons. I don’t think they exist.” Kay – US intelligence provided “flawed” information to Congress & President Initially, many Iraqis happy that Saddam was out Most Iraqis angered to learn that US & GB would be staying in Iraq to set up a new govt Insurgency: different groups (Shiite, Sunni, Kurd) who are fighting US & British troops in Iraq because they are afraid an American-designed govt will not represent their interests
Women in Islamic nations In Muhammad’s time women had extensive political & social rights Restrictions on women came later 20 th century – some Muslim countries have started to reduce restrictions on women – Turkey/Iran 1970s shift back toward more restrictions for women esp. in Iran
War in Afghanistan 1980s - USSR invasion & withdrawal – Taliban came to power – militant Islamic party – women rights gone; no school for girls Osama bin Laden – Saudi Arabian – one of wealthiest families in Middle East 1988 – founded al-Qaeda After USSR forced to withdraw bin Laden convinced that superpowers could be beaten Believed that western ideas contaminated Muslim society Outraged that Saudi govt allowed US troops in when Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait
1998 Bin Laden called on Muslims to kill Americans Bombs at US embassies in Kenya & Tanzania – 224 people killed Pres. Clinton ordered cruise missile attacks on Afghanistan & Sudan Oct 2000, al-Qaeda crashed a boat into USS Cole while it was docked near Yemen UN demanded in 1999 & 2000 that Taliban turn bin Laden in for trial – Taliban refused
9/11 Attacks 4 hijacked planes – target US economic heart & govt center Pres. Bush called state of emergency – Congress authorized use of force Oct 2001 – US & UN launched attack against al-Qaeda & Taliban in Afghanistan Taliban forced out of power – new govt created Many Afghans celebrated collapse of Talliban – men no longer had to wear beards; women no longer had to wear burkas Today – UN peacekeepers; poverty; Taliban resurgence; cocaine production