Presentation on theme: "T HE A MERICAN R EVOLUTION. E NLIGHTENMENT R EVIEW John Locke – contract theory of government and natural rights, wrote Essay on Human Understanding Jean."— Presentation transcript:
E NLIGHTENMENT R EVIEW John Locke – contract theory of government and natural rights, wrote Essay on Human Understanding Jean Jacques Rousseau – government formed by the consent of the people, separation of church and state, wrote The Social Contract Baron de Montesquieu – three branches of government, checks and balances, wrote Spirit of the Laws The Enlightenment was trying to pull people away from the church.
T HE G REAT A WAKENING Renewed dependence on God Revivals were started to spread pietism (individual’s devoutness and emotional union with God)
T HE G REAT A WAKENING Was a religious response to the Enlightenment thinkers Central idea – having an emotional experience that brings one closer to God
G REAT A WAKENING K EY P EOPLE Jonathan Edwards – New England preacher and philosopher who tried to scare people into being “born again” George Whitefield – Philadelphia minister who warned people not to listen to ministers that had not been “born again”
F RENCH AND I NDIAN W AR (1754-1763) 1740s – the British and the French both wanted the Ohio River valley George Washington led the troops for the British, had to surrender (22 years old)
F RENCH AND I NDIAN W AR Albany Conference – the British urged the colonies to form an alliance with the Iroquois Iroquois refused but stated that they would stay neutral British would have one supreme commander in the colonies Albany Plan of Union – wanted colonies to union to form a federal government (written by Benjamin Franklin); it was rejected
F RENCH AND I NDIAN W AR 1755 - General Edward Braddock was the new British commander, Colonel George Washington was his aide The British were ambushed by French and Native forces, Braddock was killed, and Washington stepped up
This would go one for 2 years in the frontier, and then it would spread to Europe Became known as the SEVEN YEARS’ WAR Eventually became Spain, France, some natives vs. Britain Britain invaded Spain’s colonies of Cuba & the Philippines
T REATY OF P ARIS (1763) Formally ended the war Eliminated French power in North America New France and Louisiana east of the Mississippi River (except for New Orleans) was turned over to Britain To get Cuba and the Philippines back, Spain would give Britain Florida
R EVIEW : R EASONS FOR ESTABLISHING THE COLONIES Religious freedom (King controlled church) Escape poverty (unemployment) Escape oppression (King too powerful) Mercantilism (theory that government power depends on its wealth)
A FTER THE F RENCH AND I NDIAN W AR ….. The British were in debt from efforts to win the war and thought the colonies should have to pay for part of the war WAS THAT FAIR?
P ROCLAMATION A CT OF 1763 Colonists were beginning to try to establish land further into Native territory Natives, led by Ottawa chief Pontiac, attacked colonial land and homes
King George did not want to pay for another war, especially over something that the colonies started He issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763 – drew a line North to South of the Appalachians and said that colonists could not settle west of the line without permission from the king Where they happy about this?
C USTOMS D UTIES Customs duties were taxes on imports and exports The British government thought that the colonists were not charging enough and were allowing too many smugglers through The British government passes a law saying that smugglers would be sent to Nova Scotia (no jury, no common law) Arrested for smuggling – John Hancock, who was represented in court by a young lawyer named John Adams
S UGAR A CT (1764) Tax on sugar, molasses, silk, wine, coffee, etc. The colonies said that it hurt trade British government could also seize goods without due process
James Otis claimed that they should not be taxed if they had no representation in the British government “No taxation without representation!”
S TAMP A CT (1765) Tax on all printed materials (newspapers, pamphlets, posters, wills, mortgages, deeds, licenses, diplomas, dice, playing cards, etc.) First tax to be direct straight at the colonies
Q UARTERING A CT (1765) If you did not house troops in your home, you would have to pay their rent somewhere else
The Sons of Liberty participated in meetings and demonstrations against new taxes
Stamp Act Congress – organized boycotts of British goods Britain repealed the Stamp Act (1 yr. later) after losing money In it’s place, they passed the Declaratory Act – Parliament could make all laws for the colonies.
T HE T OWNSHEND A CTS (1767) Introduced by Charles Townshend Main act: Revenue Act of 1767 – customs duties on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea imported into the colonies
The Townshend Acts also legalized the writs of assistance – general search warrants that allowed officers to enter your home in search of smugglers
John Dickinson wrote Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer Sam Adams and James Otis would start the “circular letter” saying that the money was being used to pay government salaries
Britain ordered the Massachusetts assembly to be dissolved Boston, New York, and Philadelphia soon signed documents saying that they would no longer buy imports from Britain
Virginia’s House of Burgesses (led by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry) passed the Virginia Resolves saying that Virginia was the only people who could tax Virginians. Britain ordered the House of Burgesses to be shut down These men would form a convention and also boycott British goods
B OSTON M ASSACRE (1770) Colonists were throwing rocks and snowballs at British troops (led by Captain Thomas Preston) Shots were fired, but the stories differed on who shot first and who said fire
5 would die and 6 were wounded First person killed – an African/Native American named Crispus Attucks WHO WAS TO BLAME?
The Townshend Acts would be repealed, except for the tax on tea!
The colonies remained pretty calm for the next two years after the Boston Massacre and the repeal of the Townshend Acts.
1772 – Gaspee affair – British ship that patrolled the North American border, would search ships without warrants/colonists seized and burned the ship Jefferson set up the committee of correspondence to communicate with other colonies about what the British were doing; would unify the colonies
1773 – Lord North passed the Tea Act to help the British East India Company sell their tea. With the help from the tax, the British tea could be sold at a lower price than the smuggled tea.
In late 1773, the British shipped tea to four major ports. The committee of correspondence spread to word to not let the tea reach land New York & Pennsylvania – forced ships to return to Britain Charleston – seized the tea and stored it in a warehouse
Boston – 150 men dressed as Indians and dumped 342 cases of tea in the Boston harbor Thousands cheered from the dock
In response, Britain passed the Coercive Acts (1774) Boston’s port would close until they paid for the tea All officials in Massachusetts would be appointed by the King Trials of British soldiers would be transferred to Britain Town meetings banned Colonist had to provide housing to the 2,000 troops coming in to keep order (Led by General Thomas Gage)
Quebec Act – king appointed leadership in Quebec and gave them more land (modern day Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Wisconsin) Together, these will called the INTOLERABLE ACTS
T HE F IRST C ONTINENTAL C ONGRESS Patrick Henry – called for war 55 delegates (all colonies except Georgia), mostly split between war and compromise
Passed the Declaration of Rights and Grievances – declared loyalty to the king but boycotted British goods because of the Coercive Acts Adjourned and would meet again in one year if there was still a problem with the British Main: Patrick Henry, George Washington, John Adams, Samuel Adams, John Jay, John Dickinson
Redcoats – British soldiers Minutemen – Concord men who would “stand at a minute’s warning in case of alarm”
Loyalists – Americans who backed the British (also known as Tories) Patriots (or Whigs) – rebelled against the British
April 1775 – the British ordered General Thomas Gage to arrest the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, but he didn’t know where to find it. So he decided to seize the supply warehouse at Concord.
700 British troops headed to Concord along a road that passed a town called Lexington.
Paul Revere and William Dawes spread the word to Lexington – “The British are coming!” After warning, the two men with Dr. Samuel Prescott, went to warn Concord. Revere and Dawes were stopped by the British, but Prescott got through.
When they reached Lexington, the British were met by 70 minutemen. The minutemen were ordered to disperse and were actually leaving when a single shot was fired. The British fired back killing 8 and wounding 10 minutemen. BRITISH VICTORY
Then the British headed to Concord, they ran into 400 colonial soldiers and retreated. They began heading back to Boston but the colonial militia began firing from behind trees and houses. The militia would surround the British and trap them in Boston. AMERICAN VICTORY
Dead – 94 Wounded - 213 Dead – 273 Wounded – 174 Colonial Death TollBritish Death Toll
2 ND C ONTINENTAL C ONGRESS Decided to “adopt” the militia that had the British surrounded and name it the Continental Army General and Commander in Chief = George Washington
Before Washington could get to his new army, the British sent 2,200 troops up to Breed’s Hill Colonial commander named William Prescott said “Don’t fire until you see the whites of their eyes!”
The colonial army was waiting and when the British got within 50 yards, they opened fire; they held off two waves of the British but had to retreat after running out of ammo This was called the BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL 1,000 British deaths
American army – new confidence British army – new leaders….. Thomas Gage resigned and William Howe took over
O LIVE B RANCH P ETITION July 1775 – John Dickinson wrote The Olive Branch Petition declaring loyalty to the King and asked for him to call off soldiers; things could be worked out peacefully
At the same time, a group of Patriots raided Quebec to try to get the French to help them; not successful
The King refused and said that their would be no compromise. The Patriots began negotiating with the Natives for help.
The Patriots seized control of Boston when the British were evacuated The King shut down all trade with the colonies and ordered a naval blockade The British hired 30,000 German soldiers
But where says some is the King of America? I'll tell you Friend, he reigns above, and doth not make havoc of mankind like the Royal Brute of Britain...let it be brought forth placed on the divine law, the word of God; let a crown be placed thereon, by which the world may know, that so far as we approve of monarchy, that in America THE LAW IS KING. Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
Everything that is right or reasonable pleads for separation. The blood of the slain, the weeping voice of nature cries, 'tis time to part. Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
The Sun never shined on a cause of greater worth. Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
July 4, 1776 – the Declaration of Independence was issued Complete independence from British To be called the United States of America Officially started the American Revolution
We hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
We must all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately. – Benjamin Franklin
S TRENGTHS AND W EAKNESSES Colonial AdvantagesBritish Advantages Fighting on home ground; guerilla warfare Well-trained, well supplied army and navy Good decisions by generalsWealth of resources Fighting for rights and freedomsStrong central government French alliance: loans, navy, troops Colonial DisadvantagesBritish Disadvantages Untrained soldiers; small armyFighting in unfamiliar, hostile territory Food and ammo shortagesFighting far away from Britain and resources Weak & divided central governmentTroops indifferent; not much support at home
B ATTLES – 23 TOTAL BATTLES IN THE A MERICAN R EVOLUTION Lexington/Concord Bunker Hill Both prior to Declaration of Independence
B ATTLE OF L ONG I SLAND - 1776 Washington fled because of being outnumbered, took army to New York When followed, Washington fled New York New York became the British headquarters for the rest of the war Both considered British victories
Washington sent Captain Nathan Hale to spy on the British Hale was disguised as a Dutch schoolteacher Captured and hanged Last words: “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
B ATTLE OF W HITE P LAINS – O CT. 1776 Washington forced to retreat AGAIN British headed to Philadelphia where the Continental Congress was meeting It became a race between the British and Patriots
As winter approached, fighting stopped Harsh conditions and scarce food Armies usually agreed not to fight in the winter
T HOMAS P AINE WRITES A N A MERICAN CRISIS “the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph” “These are the times that try men’s souls.”
B ATTLE OF T RENTON Washington was about to do something drastic On Dec. 25, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across the icy Delaware River Captured/killed 1,000 Hessians (British aide) Continental victory
B ATTLE OF P RINCETON – J AN. 3, 1777 Washington leads his army to Princeton, holding off and defeating three groups of the British army Continental victory Raised the morale of the Americans
B ATTLE OF B RANDYWINE C REEK – S EPT. 1777 British General Howe wanted to capture Philadelphia and the Continental Congress Defeated Washington and captured Philadelphia Continental Congress escaped
V ALLEY F ORGE Washington’s army settled in Valley Forge for the winter Bad conditions, little food = 2,500 left dead Washington gets training for his men from two Europeans Marquis de Lafayette – French Baron Friedrich von Steuben - Prussia
B ATTLE OF S ARATOGA British General Burgoyne took 8,000 troops into New York British were being helped by the Iroquois Indians Burgoyne ended up surrendering to American General Horatio Gates
B ECAUSE OF S ARATOGA 1778 - French recognized America as an independent nation and allied with them for war Spain allied with the French, making them “unofficial” allies with America
The Americans and the French began seizing British ships and taking their cargo
Dec. 1778 – British seized Savannah, GA May 1780 – British seized Charles Towne, SC New British Commander = General Charles Cornwalis
B ATTLE OF K ING ’ S M OUNTAIN The British, led by Banastre Tarleton (Tavington in The Patriot ) and Patrick Ferguson, tried to take over the Appalachian Mountains Defeated by the wild “mountainmen” Southerners started creating their own militias against the British
American General Nathanial Greene organized hit-and-run raids on the British Many led by Francis Marion, known as the “Swamp Fox” (Benjamin Martin or the “ghost” in The Patriot )
T HE B ATTLE OF Y ORKTOWN The British, led by Cornwalis, wanted to invade Virginia because that was where the French were sending in supplies
Benedict Arnold – American general who sold info to the British. When discovered, he fled to Great Britain and joined their military
Cornwalis and Arnold were demolishing Virginia until they came across American General Anthony Wayne The British retreated to Yorktown, Virginia
Washington ordered all military to surround Yorktown Washington’s aide – Alexander Hamilton
October 19, 1781 – Cornwalis and the British surrendered
T REATY OF P ARIS September 3, 1783: 1. The United States of America was an independent nation (border = Mississippi River) 2. Florida went back to Spain 3. African colonies and the Caribbean went to Spain
From the list below select 7of the events, people, or occurrences from American History and in the three-step procedure of: 1) providing an approximate DATE 2) and appropriate ILLUSTRATION 3) an insightful ANNOTATION create a visual timeline of America from 1776-1783. Dates do not have to be exact, illustrations do not have to be perfect, and annotations do not have to be overly- lengthy. However, you must demonstrate a meaningful understanding of the content material, and its context and chronology. Battles/Events: PrincetonBrandywine Creek Bunker Hill SaratogaLexington/Concord Valley Forge King’s MountainTrenton White Plains YorktownNew York City Long Island
T OTAL C ASUALTIES Around 24,000 killed or wounded $375.6 million Around 27,000 killed or wounded $151 million BritishAmericans
T HE A MERICAN R EVOLUTION – H OW IT C HANGED S OCIETY Republic – power resides with a body of citizens who vote in their representatives