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THE HISTORY OF THE JEWS ANCIENT WORLD MIDDLE AGES AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "THE HISTORY OF THE JEWS ANCIENT WORLD MIDDLE AGES AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE HISTORY OF THE JEWS ANCIENT WORLD MIDDLE AGES AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT

2 THE ANCIENT WORLD Abraham=father of Judaism 1 st monotheistic faith—early persecution b/c everyone else polytheistic –God told him to move to Canaan (Israel) –Covenant w/ God “I will make you a great nation”…if Hebrews remain faithful to God –Grandson, Jacob (aka Israel) raised 12 sons (12 Tribes of Israel) –Famine in Canaan-fled to Egypt where enslaved by pharaoh –1200 bc-Moses led exodus into Sinai Desert –God renewed Covenant w/ Moses and given 10 Commandments-promised Holy Land

3 The Struggle for Canaan 200 years of warfare Israelites united under David-established Jerusalem as capital Under David’s son, Solomon, 10 Tribes broke away-formed Israel, 2 Tribes to South-formed Judah (where we get term Jew) Now weaker, since divided Israel and Judah conquered-Jews scatter (diaspora) Begins Babylonian exile—best/brightest taken by Babylonians Many prophets arise-Jews worship in synagogues POSSIBILITY THAT ROOTS OF ANTI-SEMITISM GO BACK THIS FAR-JEWS SEEN AS OUTCASTS, REJECTED POLYTHEISM

4 ROMAN RULE AND CHRISTAIN OPPOSITION Jews were conquered off and on until 63 BC, came under rule of Rome (Jewish political independence not regained again until 1948) Perpetual revolts vs Roman rule—repressed and punished 70AD-under Titus-Jerusalem sacked and Temple destroyed

5 132 AD-Jews revolted again against Emperor Hadrian- forbade Jewish practices Jews of Judea were either killed, enslaved, or forced to flee Christianity became official religion of Rome-furthered persecution

6 Christian Laws –Death penalty if Jew converts Christian wife/slave –Marriage between Jews/Christians=adultery –Jews barred from Civil Service –No new synagogues –Couldn’t be members of guilds –7th Century-mandatory baptism of all Jews in Byzantium, France, Spain

7 THE MIDDLE AGES Holy Crusades-many Jews killed by Christians both in Jerusalem and throughout West/East Europe Jews banned from carrying weapons-relied on neighbors/rulers to aid them EXPULSIONS –ENGLAND-1290 –FRANCE-1394 –SPAIN-1492 –GERMANY-1400 (AFTER POGROMS AGAINST THEM) –MANY FLED WESTERN EUROPE AND MOVED EAST- POLAND, HUNGARY

8 SUPERSTITIONS ABOUT JEWS: Blood Libel-Jews killed Christian children for blood to be used in Passover ceremonies Jews poisoned wells Jews started the plague-God’s punishment Jews were forced to wear badges, live in ghettos, Christians burned Jewish books Local clergy, monks, friars led attacks Inquisitions-forced to convert or be killed

9 AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT New political thought-all men created equal, etc.-led to American, French, English Revolutions Jews played a part in all Allowed for greater acceptance of Jews Allowed in military, schools, etc. Began to assimilate into society-especially in Western Europe

10 EASTERN VS WESTERN JEWS HIGH PROPORTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES THAT DESIRED REUNIFICATION W/ MOTHER LAND JEWISH COMMUNITIES DECLINED IN PROPORTION TO SURROUNDING NON-JEWISH POPULATION MANY ORTHODOX JEWS MAJ. SPOKE “JEWISH LANGUAGES” JEWISH NATIONAL IDENTITY HIGH LITTLE INTERMARRIAGE MORE RURAL (HIGH PROFILES IN CITIES) MANY LIVED IN POVERTY POLITICALLY ACTIVE FOR JEWS SECOND-CLASS CITIZENS FEW OF THESE PROBLEMS JEWS DECLINED IN PROPORTION TO NON-JEWS AND IN ABSOLUTE TERMS FEW ORTHODOX JEWS MOST SPOKE VERNACULAR JUDAISM=RELIGION. NATIONAL IDENTITY W/ THE STATE INTERMARRIAGE RISING MORE URBAN MIDDLE CLASS AFFILIATED W/ LOCAL POL. PARTY FULL NATIONAL/CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS

11 RECENT HISTORY OF POGROMS AND OVERT ACTS OF ANTI- SEMITISM JEWISH CHILDREN ATTENDED JEWISH SCHOOLS CONDITIONSWERE FAVORABLE FOR “JUDAISM” BUT UNFAVORABLE FOR THE INDIVIDUAL JEW FEW ACTS OF ANTI-SEMITISM- DISCRIMINATION ON MORE SOCIAL LEVEL FEW JEWISH CHILDREN ATTEND JEWISH SCHOOLS CONDITIONS WERE GOOD FOR THE INDIVIDUAL JEW BUT BAD FOR “JUDAISM”

12 The Jews into the 20th Century Two Defining Moments: Holocaust/Formation of Israel Late 1800s –Increasing Pogroms in Russia/E. Europe –Increased Anti- Semitism in Germany –Jews seen more as a virus-drain on resources of host nation “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” –Document believed to be written by a Jew (actually, a forgery) –Plot of Jews to overtake world –Still seen in anti-Semitic literature

13 Zionism –Desire to build autonomous Jewish society –Most wanted to be in Palestine-had been promised to Abraham –1917-Balfour Declaration-G.B. promised Jews that if they supported G.B. in WWI, Jews could have Palestine (upset Arabs) WWI –140,000 European Jews died fighting for homeland –Increased pogroms –Immigration restricted –High death rate, low birth rate –Increased anti-Semitism in Germany-political parties gaining power-general population ignores their anti-Jewish rhetoric

14 Science/Darwinism/Malthus, and the Nazis Rudolph Hoess said “National Socialism is nothing by applied biology” Hitler “The mission of the German people is to assemble and preserve the most valuable stocks of basic racial elements and slowly and severely raising them to a dominant position” Darwin: –Sexual reproduction instinct is so great that no country will be able to support the ‘product’-it leads to a struggle for existence

15 Malthus –Life increases beyond the nourishment prepared for it –Give man more food, he’ll breed more –Population increases geometrically-means of subsistence increases mathematically –Future is dismal- starving masses 19th Century Means of dealing w/ population problems: –Encouraged habits contrary to cleanliness –Streets narrower, crowd people into close quarters, build villages close to stagnant ponds,marshes –Acquire foreign territory for national survival –Wanted large tracts of land to spread out –War is regulator of population- biologically necessary

16 Turning Malthus into Naziism Adolf Jost (Mentor of Hitler)-argued that for sake of social organism-state must take responsibility for death of individuals- only healthy people should have children Living space “lebensraum” was taken from Germany after WWI, needed to focus on population in remaining land State has natural right to kill individuals in order to keep the nation alive and healthy Destruction of life unworthy of life was a healing treatment for the state Sterilization necessary b/c the “unworthy” will continue to reproduce, possibly at higher rate than those worthy or reproduction-natural selection will not work…must be implemented by state.


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