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Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America

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1 Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America
Chapter 20

2 Civil War and Revolution
Charles I was the son of James I He believed in the divine right of kings This belief along with his marriage to a French Catholic put him out of touch with the English people Charles tried to force people to give him money He imprisoned those that didn’t

3 Parliament did not like this ideal and issued Charles the Petition of Right
King could not tax without consenting King could not declare martial law (imprisonment by military rule) King could not board soldiers in private homes during peacetime King could not imprison without a justifiable charge

4 Charles dismissed Parliament for 11 years
The economy boomed, but social issues weakened Charles liked the Anglican way of things These ways seemed too Catholic for the Puritans and discontent for the king grew

5 Puritans believed that the king was becoming a tyrant
Scotland was under Charles’ reign He tried to force Anglican ways onto the Protestant Scots The Scots signed the National Covenant, that stated the Anglican ways were a violation of their religion The Scots showed loyalty to the church before the king

6 Charles invaded Scotland where he was defeated twice
Charles called a session of Parliament known as the Long Parliament Parliament lasted for 20 years Charles wanted Parliament to allow him to over tax so he could raise money to defeat the Scots

7 While Parliament was in session, rebellion broke out in Ireland
Neither side, the English or the Irish, would compromise and war broke out The people who supported the king were called cavaliers Those who opposed the king were called roundheads

8 Oliver Cromwell, a roundhead, organized an army, called the New Model Army, to defeat the king
Cromwell then moved to Parliament and abolished any king supporting member The Cromwell ran Parliament was called the Rump-Parliament Cromwell destroyed the monarch, making England a commonwealth

9 Cromwell based his rule on the army
Cromwell encouraged trade People did not like the protectorate style of government Cromwell eventually dissolved parliament and ruled alone The people invited Charles II to come and restore the English Monarch

10 Constitutional Monarchy in England
The time period that Charles II reigned is known as the Restoration Charles II removed Puritan restrictions on theater and made the arts more available to the English people Because of his father’s execution, Charles II was very cautious When Charles II died, his brother James II took reign

11 The English people wanted to dethrone James II
James II had two daughters and a son, which had the right to the throne Parliament called for James II to step down and invited his daughter Mary, and her husband, William of Orange to take the throne

12 James II fled to France William and Mary became joint rulers, being known as William III and Mary II of England During the English Civil War, Thomas Hobbes wrote a new political philosophy Hobbes believed that the people should pick a ruler and the only right they had was to protect their own lives

13 In disagreement to Hobbes, John Locke believed that the people should still have the right to own property and to have liberties and the chosen ruler should protect those rights Parliament agreed with Locke and passed the Habeas Corpus Act and the Declaration of Rights

14 The Habeas Corpus Act stated that a judge had to decide whether or not a criminal should be freed and tried for an accused crime It also protected individuals from unfair arrest and imprisonment In 1689, Parliament passed the Toleration Act, which granted religious freedoms to all religions except Roman Catholics and Jews

15 In 1701, the Act of Settlement was passed which kept Catholics from the English throne
These acts for sure gave Parliament the right to rule England In 1707, Parliament passed the Act of Union, uniting England and Scotland into what is known as Great Britain. With the new gain of territory, Britain set out to dominate the seas and become all powerful in Europe

16 English Colonial Expansion
1600’s English explorers began claiming and conquering lands overseas. English merchants moved into the Americas and Asia By 1760’s, Great Britain's colonial empire was the greatest in the world. King Henry Vll of England hired John Cabot

17 Cabot’s voyages 1497 to 1498 gave England its first claim in North America
In the 1500’s sea dogs appeared, the challenged Portuguese and Spanish monopolies of sea trade. Sir Francis Drake was the first English sea captain to sail around the globe. Sea dogs were best known for raiding ships

18 Sea dogs raided Spanish slave ships from Africa this angered Philip ll
Elizabeth secretly supported and shared profits by selling the slaves with the sea dogs. Sea dogs helped England defeat the Spanish Armada and strengthened the nation’s seafaring tradition.

19 The defeat of the Spanish Armada encouraged British to establish colonies overseas
Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter a trading group that came to be known as the British East India Company The company played a major role in the development of Great Britian’s overseas power During its early years, the company worked to build and expand overseas trade, making no attempt to gain territory

20 It set up trading posts at bombay, Calcutta, and Madras in India
The posts gradually became centers of power from which the British were able both to defend their trade interests and to expand their influence Over time the British East India Company became an unofficial extension of the British government The company did much to shape and apply Britain's colonial and commercial policies

21 Britain explored the continent in hope of finding the Northwest Passage.
Spain controlled the Southern route around Cape Horn in South America Henry Hudson was one of the first to search for the Northwest Passage. He sailed for the Dutch then the English.

22 The British began settling along the eastern coast of North American
The British began settling along the eastern coast of North American. In 1607 they established Jamestown then in 1620 they founded Plymouth which is now Massachusetts Colonists settled in North American to find greater political and religious freedom.

23 The British government tried to make the colonies more profitable
Merchants believed that a nations wealth came from exporting more goods than importing Parliament passed laws to enforce this policy Colonist resented British trade regulations and avoided paying taxes

24 The Enlightenment Europe during the 1700’s is known as the age of Enlightenment Truth was believed to be determined by logical thinking, this is known as rationalism Enlightenment thinkers believed in natural law Nature was expected to act in predictable ways

25 God was also believed to have created all natural things, but did not interfere with natural human affairs Thinkers during the Enlightenment were known as philosophes Philosophes were philosophers and critics of society

26 Philosophes wrote books and letters to each other to share and compare their ideas
The most famous of these writings in known as the Encyclopedia The Encyclopedia was edited by Denis Diderot Philosophes wrote their ideas and theories on every possible topic that they could The French government frowned upon the book and imprisoned Diderot, as well as others

27 Philosophes criticized the power of kings, clergymen, and government
Many philosophes adopted the ideas of John Locke for government French writer, Voltaire, attacked the government in satires Voltaire was jailed twice and fled to Great Britain, where he admired the British government

28 Jean-Jacques Rousseau published his political theory stating that government should be based on popular sovereignty Popular sovereignty is the theory that government should be created and controlled by the people of it’s territory

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