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Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America Chapter 20.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America Chapter 20."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment and Revolution in England and America Chapter 20

2 Civil War and Revolution  Charles I was the son of James I  He believed in the divine right of kings  This belief along with his marriage to a French Catholic put him out of touch with the English people  Charles tried to force people to give him money  He imprisoned those that didn’t

3  Parliament did not like this ideal and issued Charles the Petition of Right  King could not tax without consenting  King could not declare martial law (imprisonment by military rule)  King could not board soldiers in private homes during peacetime  King could not imprison without a justifiable charge

4  Charles dismissed Parliament for 11 years  The economy boomed, but social issues weakened  Charles liked the Anglican way of things  These ways seemed too Catholic for the Puritans and discontent for the king grew

5  Puritans believed that the king was becoming a tyrant  Scotland was under Charles’ reign  He tried to force Anglican ways onto the Protestant Scots  The Scots signed the National Covenant, that stated the Anglican ways were a violation of their religion  The Scots showed loyalty to the church before the king

6  Charles invaded Scotland where he was defeated twice  Charles called a session of Parliament known as the Long Parliament  Parliament lasted for 20 years  Charles wanted Parliament to allow him to over tax so he could raise money to defeat the Scots

7  While Parliament was in session, rebellion broke out in Ireland  Neither side, the English or the Irish, would compromise and war broke out  The people who supported the king were called cavaliers  Those who opposed the king were called roundheads

8  Oliver Cromwell, a roundhead, organized an army, called the New Model Army, to defeat the king  Cromwell then moved to Parliament and abolished any king supporting member  The Cromwell ran Parliament was called the Rump-Parliament  Cromwell destroyed the monarch, making England a commonwealth

9  Cromwell based his rule on the army  Cromwell encouraged trade  People did not like the protectorate style of government  Cromwell eventually dissolved parliament and ruled alone  The people invited Charles II to come and restore the English Monarch

10 Constitutional Monarchy in England  The time period that Charles II reigned is known as the Restoration  Charles II removed Puritan restrictions on theater and made the arts more available to the English people  Because of his father’s execution, Charles II was very cautious  When Charles II died, his brother James II took reign

11  The English people wanted to dethrone James II  James II had two daughters and a son, which had the right to the throne  Parliament called for James II to step down and invited his daughter Mary, and her husband, William of Orange to take the throne

12  James II fled to France  William and Mary became joint rulers, being known as William III and Mary II of England  During the English Civil War, Thomas Hobbes wrote a new political philosophy  Hobbes believed that the people should pick a ruler and the only right they had was to protect their own lives

13  In disagreement to Hobbes, John Locke believed that the people should still have the right to own property and to have liberties and the chosen ruler should protect those rights  Parliament agreed with Locke and passed the Habeas Corpus Act and the Declaration of Rights

14  The Habeas Corpus Act stated that a judge had to decide whether or not a criminal should be freed and tried for an accused crime  It also protected individuals from unfair arrest and imprisonment  In 1689, Parliament passed the Toleration Act, which granted religious freedoms to all religions except Roman Catholics and Jews

15  In 1701, the Act of Settlement was passed which kept Catholics from the English throne  These acts for sure gave Parliament the right to rule England  In 1707, Parliament passed the Act of Union, uniting England and Scotland into what is known as Great Britain.  With the new gain of territory, Britain set out to dominate the seas and become all powerful in Europe

16 English Colonial Expansion   1600’s English explorers began claiming and conquering lands overseas.   English merchants moved into the Americas and Asia   By 1760’s, Great Britain's colonial empire was the greatest in the world.   King Henry Vll of England hired John Cabot

17   Cabot’s voyages 1497 to 1498 gave England its first claim in North America   In the 1500’s sea dogs appeared, the challenged Portuguese and Spanish monopolies of sea trade.   Sir Francis Drake was the first English sea captain to sail around the globe.   Sea dogs were best known for raiding ships

18   Sea dogs raided Spanish slave ships from Africa this angered Philip ll   Elizabeth secretly supported and shared profits by selling the slaves with the sea dogs.   Sea dogs helped England defeat the Spanish Armada and strengthened the nation’s seafaring tradition.

19   The defeat of the Spanish Armada encouraged British to establish colonies overseas   Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter a trading group that came to be known as the British East India Company   The company played a major role in the development of Great Britian’s overseas power   During its early years, the company worked to build and expand overseas trade, making no attempt to gain territory

20   It set up trading posts at bombay, Calcutta, and Madras in India   The posts gradually became centers of power from which the British were able both to defend their trade interests and to expand their influence   Over time the British East India Company became an unofficial extension of the British government   The company did much to shape and apply Britain's colonial and commercial policies

21   Britain explored the continent in hope of finding the Northwest Passage.   Spain controlled the Southern route around Cape Horn in South America   Henry Hudson was one of the first to search for the Northwest Passage. He sailed for the Dutch then the English.

22   The British began settling along the eastern coast of North American. In 1607 they established Jamestown then in 1620 they founded Plymouth which is now Massachusetts   Colonists settled in North American to find greater political and religious freedom.

23   The British government tried to make the colonies more profitable   Merchants believed that a nations wealth came from exporting more goods than importing   Parliament passed laws to enforce this policy   Colonist resented British trade regulations and avoided paying taxes

24 The Enlightenment   Europe during the 1700’s is known as the age of Enlightenment   Truth was believed to be determined by logical thinking, this is known as rationalism   Enlightenment thinkers believed in natural law   Nature was expected to act in predictable ways

25   God was also believed to have created all natural things, but did not interfere with natural human affairs   Thinkers during the Enlightenment were known as philosophes   Philosophes were philosophers and critics of society

26   Philosophes wrote books and letters to each other to share and compare their ideas   The most famous of these writings in known as the Encyclopedia   The Encyclopedia was edited by Denis Diderot   Philosophes wrote their ideas and theories on every possible topic that they could   The French government frowned upon the book and imprisoned Diderot, as well as others

27   Philosophes criticized the power of kings, clergymen, and government   Many philosophes adopted the ideas of John Locke for government   French writer, Voltaire, attacked the government in satires   Voltaire was jailed twice and fled to Great Britain, where he admired the British government

28   Jean-Jacques Rousseau published his political theory stating that government should be based on popular sovereignty   Popular sovereignty is the theory that government should be created and controlled by the people of it’s territory


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