Presentation on theme: "UNIT I Introduction “The Gilded Age” Ch 8, 9, & 10."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT I Introduction “The Gilded Age” Ch 8, 9, & 10
The Gilded Age Post-Civil War and post-Reconstruction eras Substantial growth in population and land. Extravagant displays of wealth, materialism and excess of America's upper class Characterized by political corruption
The Gilded Age The WestIndustrializationPolitical Machine Miners Ranchers Farming the plains Commercial farms Plains Indian conflicts Native America Assimilation Immigration Nativism Urbanization Social Darwinism Reform Population Technology Railroads Big Business Working conditions Labor unions
Settling the West Resource Exploitation. Depletion of the resources Mining Precious Metals Ranching Cattle Farming “Rain follows the plow” Native Americans
Settling the West Mining Gold-Silver-Copper Led to Boomtowns Towns were populated by people that came in support of Miners. Cooks - Shop Keepers – Blacksmiths – Tailors (levis) Boom and Bust cycle Mines dry up….Economy collapses….Ghost Town * Comstock Lode- the first major U.S. discovery of silver and gold ore, located under what is now Virginia City, Nevada.
Settling the West Cattle Ranchers Texas, Oklahoma & New Mexico Civil War depletes Cattle in Great Plains. Supply and Demand for Beef. Railroads connect east and great plains Long Drive steers cattle long distances to Rail Roads for $$$$$$$$$. Chisholm Trail most widely used over 1.5 million.
Resource Exploitation Farming “Rain follows the Plow” Railroads Easy to reach Plains Homestead Act Govt. Granted land Concerns Hot Summers Brutally cold winters Lack of water and trees Insects destroy crops
Settling the West Farming Adapting to conditions Dry farming Deep planting of seeds to utilize moisture. Wheat Farming Bad soil New technology Cheap land = big profits US leader in Wheat Too much wheat =???? Family farms lost.
Settling the West Native Americans Different tribes but similar values Settlers Took hunting grounds Slaughtered buffalo Broke treaties Forcibly moved Native Americans to new lands. NA resist Attacks on settlers Uprisings Defending territories
Resistance Gold discoveries in Dakotas and Wyoming brings Settlers to reservations US sets up outposts to deter NA’s…Opposite effect. Chief Red Cloud Successfully fought off settlers and Army regiments in Wyoming. Met with President Grant Established peace treaty that US ignored. Forced onto a reservation.
Resistance Dakota uprising (Chief Little Crow) NA’s starving on reservations US late with payments (annuities) “Let them eat grass” Dakota slaughtered settlers 307 Dakota sentenced 38 put to death.
Resistance Sand Creek Massacre- Chief Black Kettle Sandy Creek, CO Colonel Chivington- “Kill and scalp all, big and little!” The Cheyenne were waiting at Fort Lyon to negotiate a peace treaty. Chivington ignored the US and White flag and attacked. NA’s massacred. No Charges against Chivington…Angered many Americans.
RESISTANCE Fetterman’s Massacre Chief Crazy Horse- Lakota Indians Crazy Horse tricked Fetterman and 80 soldiers into following a small band of Lakota, & lured him into an ambush where hundreds of Lakota Indians waited to massacre him & his men.
Resistance 1867- Indian Peace Commission Many NA’s ignore reservation and hunted in the plains. Buffalo slaughter outrages NA’s Roads and Trains cut through reservations Food and Supplies were not delivered as promised. Both sides violate treaty.
RESISTANCE Battle of Little Big Horn “Custer’s Last Stand” US sends troops to S.Dakota US Army attacks a group of NA’s. NA’s much larger than Expected. NA’s led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse overwhelmed the 7th Calvary Sitting Bull- Spiritual Leader of Lakota Indians. Had a vision of victory of LBH which inspired warriors. Refused to live on reservation and fled to Canada after LBH hunter by US troops.
Resistance Nez Percé Chief Joseph Americans tried to force Chief Joseph’s tribe onto a smaller Reservation in Idaho “Our Chiefs are killed…The little Children are freezing to death. My People…have no blankets, no food Hear me, my chiefs; I am tired; my Heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no More forever.”
Resistance Ghost Dance- Ritual Dance for the day of reckoning. Return to the old way of life. Buffalo would return Settlers would disappear Reunite with ancestors
Resistance Tragedy at Wounded Knee Police sent to arrest SB for the Ghost Dance. In protest of arrest gunfire broke out killing SB. NA’s fled but were caught by troops @ Wounded Knee Creek. Troops tried to force a surrender. Fighting broke out. 200 Lakota and 25 US troops killed.
Assimilation “Don’t kill the man just the Indian” Teach them to speak English Force them to be Christians Dawes Act - passed by Congress in 1887 160 acres per family 80 per single adult tried to "Americanize" the Indians by breaking up the tribal system. It failed. (could not farm and were not given farming equipment) Most Indian tribes confined to reservations in the West. The Dawes Act represents two conflicting ideas. Americans would accept Indians as citizens. But they would not accept them as Indians.