Giuseppe Garibaldi: The Red Gaucho HIST 230: Modern Latin America
Why the Red Gaucho? Ever wonder why liberals, socialists, and communists are associated with the color red? Just sit back and let me tell you a wonderful story.
Garibaldi - the Hero Pictured is the Garibaldi Monument in Washington Square Park, New York City. Garibaldi was offered command of the Union Army by a desperate Abraham Lincoln in 1862. Why? http://www.reformation.org/garibaldi.html
Beginning at the End Giuseppe Garibaldi is known as the Hero of the Risorgimento, the unification of Italy in the 1860s (because): Italy was united in 1861 with the capitulation of the Papal States (after): Garibaldi led an army of volunteers, the Thousand, in an invasion of Italy, wearing red shirts. After conquering Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples, Garibaldi handed over southern Italy to Victor Emmanuel, King of Sardinia- Piedemont.
The Long Road But in truth, this was Garibaldi’s third attempt at unifying Italy. As a youth, Garibaldi learned seafaring from his father, traveling to exotic ports of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Enlisting in the Sardinian Navy, Garibaldi fought in the abortive attempt to unify Italy in 1834. Barely escaping with his life, he lived under an assumed name for two years in Marseilles, France.
Latin American Roots Having fought in an abortive revolution in Italy in 1834, Garibaldi goes into exile in Brazil. Buys a ship to earn a living as a trader. Volunteers to fight with his ship for the fledgling Republic of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). After the defeat of the Uruguayan Army, organizes the Italian Legion from freed slaves and European immigrants. Defeats the Argentine Army of dictator Rosas, ensuring Uruguayan independence.
Garibaldi - the Revolutionary Pictured is Guiseppe Garibaldi wearing his trademark gaucho costume with a red shirt. Nicknamed El Diablo, Garibaldi learned to fight an unconventional war while in South America. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/rodcuff/garibald.htm
The Story of the Red Shirts During the fight for Uruguayan independence, Garibaldi purchased in bulk red shirts which had been made for butchers in Argentina. The red shirts were issued as a military uniform to identify friendly combatants and to make anyone who fled from the battle stand out.
Anita - the loving wife Garibaldi’s constant companion, Anita is said to have fought like a man, killing three men during a battle on her wedding night. Anita is said to have given birth four times while in the saddle. http://www.reformation.org/garibaldi.html
Garibaldi - the Revolutionary Pictured is Giuseppe Garibaldi, the guerrillero. Note again the red shirt. Noted for his audacity, European armies were ill- prepared to meet his unconventional tactics. http://www.reformation.org/garibaldi.html
Anita Dies (1848) Pursued by 100,000 men of the Papal Army, Garibaldi escapes to Piedmontese. Pregnant and ill, Anita is carried on Garibaldi’s back; but, dies on the beach. http://www.reformation.org/garibaldi.html
Defeat in 1848 Garibaldi returned to Italy with 100 plus Italians from South America in 1848. Fought in the social revolutions of 1848 which were influenced by Karl Marx. Note: Concurrently, revolutions were ongoing in Germany and other European principalities. Fled to New York City where he worked in a candle factory, becoming an American citizen.
Garibaldi (the Legacy) hjh. http://www.italiankits.it/history.html Garibaldi at the Battle of Calatafimi, Sicily, in 1860. Note the red shirts.
Garibaldi - the Socialist Pictured is Giuseppe Garibaldi by the time of Italian unification. Garibaldi’s greatest adversary was the Pope and the Papal States, which prevented Italian unification for years. http://library.thinkquest.org/19592/Persons/garibald.htm
Garibaldi: Hero of Two Worlds Pictured is the Garibaldi Monument in Rome. Italian-American, socialist, agnostic Catholic, revolutionary. Hero of two worlds. http://www.reformation.org/happy_birthday_america.html