Presentation on theme: "Charles the First ‘-that man of blood’ Part 2 ‘1629 - 1640’"— Presentation transcript:
Charles the First ‘-that man of blood’ Part 2 ‘1629 - 1640’
Personal Rule 1629-1640 It was Charles’ prerogative to call and dismiss Parliaments He had become disillusioned with Parliaments With a personal rule Charles would be personally liable for all successes and failures
The Queen Charles grew closer to his Queen after the death of George Villiers. Their first child was born soon after Henrietta was not an influential force before 1635 Charles allowed her to continue with her Catholicism which caused resentment
1629-1630 Charles made peace with France and Spain The debt was now £1,500,000 There was no Parliament to grant taxes Charles devised other means to raise money
Raising Money There was compulsory purchasing of knighthoods Forest boundaries were extended and then people were fined for trespassing were fined for trespassing 1635 Ship Money was applied to the whole country not just port areas Charles sold many monopolies
Ship Money John Hampden challenged the validity of Ship Money by refusing to pay He was judged by twelve judges The judges ruled against him 7:5 Charles did not have the full support of the judiciary People paid Ship Money but resented it John Hampden
English Prayer Book Charles appointed William Laud as archbishop in 1633. In 1637 he decided to impose the English Prayer Book on the Scots The Scots were mainly Presbyterian (similar to Puritan). They hated Bishops and Prayer Books. This action was a major contributor to the Civil war
Scottish Riots The Scots rioted over the imposition of the Prayer Book. Charles was unable to quell the riots. In 1640 Charles called Parliament for help.
Arrest of MPs 1642 Charles entered the House of Commons to arrest the five leading MPs who opposed him at every turn. The MPs had been warned and had already left. Charles noted the “the birds have flown”
Charles Leaves London was in an uproar. Charles fled north. He raised his standard at Nottingham. The Civil War began.
A Nation Divided Most of the prosperous south-east including London supported Parliament. Charles had the support of most of the rest of the country including Scotland. Generally Catholics supported Charles and Protestants supported Parliament.
Cavaliers and Roundheads The King’s followers were called Cavaliers and were dressed more flamboyantly. The Parliamentarians were called Roundheads which reflected the dress of the New Model Army
Prince Rupert Charles’ German born nephew Prince Rupert, aged 23, came to help his uncle. Charles made him commander of the Royalist army. He specialised in lightening cavalry charges. He was an outstanding military commander.
Robert Devereaux The Earl of Essex led the Parliamentary army. He was an experienced military commander
Edgehill The two armies met in Warwickshire on the 23 rd October 1642. Both armies suffered losses. At the end of the day there was no clear winner. The next day the Parliamentarians withdrew.
Marston Moor The Royalists had been undefeated under Prince Rupert. The Parliamentarians had an outstanding Victory at Marston Moor under Oliver Cromwell. Rupert called Cromwell and his men “Ironsides”. Fairfax and Rupert
Naseby This battle was a turning point. It took place in June 1644. It was the first major engagement for the Parliamentarians’ New Model Army. Charles fled to Scotland for help. The Scots betrayed him and handed him over to the Parliamentarians. He managed to escape but was soon recaptured.
Charles was incarcerated in Carisbrooke Castle where he tried to organise an invasion force of Scots. This sparked off the second Civil War. The Royalists were defeated at Preston in August 1648. Charles was truly defeated.
Trial The trial was held at Westminster Hall. It began on 20 th January 1649. He was found guilty of treason. The death warrant was signed by 59 republicans. However, many felt that imprisonment would have been enough.
Execution Sentence was passed on the 27 th January 1649. Charles was dignified to the end. At 10am on the 30 th January he was escorted to St James’ Palace. The execution was to take place at 2pm. Nightcap worn by Charles the night before his execution
Charles wore two shirts so that his shivering from the cold would not be mistaken for fear. The crowd groaned when the axe fell. The huge crowd then surged towards the scaffold. They bought relics of their dead king – some for remembrance and others for a trophy.
His hair and blood were sold. The block was broken and cut into chips and sold. The sand on the platform, soaked in gore, was sold. His body was manhandled. Charles was buried at St George’s Chapel. His coffin was covered in snow- a sign of innocency. He was in his forty-eighth year of life and his twenty- second year of his reign.