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House of Stuart House of Stuart Established because Elizabeth was childless Rather than a civil war, lords and Parliament invited a royal cousin James.

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Presentation on theme: "House of Stuart House of Stuart Established because Elizabeth was childless Rather than a civil war, lords and Parliament invited a royal cousin James."— Presentation transcript:


2 House of Stuart


4 House of Stuart Established because Elizabeth was childless Rather than a civil war, lords and Parliament invited a royal cousin James VI of Scotland to rule as James I of England

5 James I Reigned 1603-25 Protestant The people disliked him England went into debt; James demanded high taxes Argued with Parliament; wanted absolute monarchy as in Henry VIII’s day Jamestown & Plymouth, Massachusetts founded

6 John Cabot The English claimed the right to colonize North America because of the voyages of John Cabot Henry VII had commissioned Cabot to explore a Northwest Passage to Asia. He cruised along the North American Coast and perhaps got as far as the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

7 Jamestown The first permanent English settlement in America was founded here on May 14, 1607, by a group of 104 settlers led by Capt. Christopher Newport. Many settlers died from famine and disease in the winter of 1609-1610. The survivors were encouraged to stay by the arrival of new settlers and supplies the following June.

8 James Fort (1607), their triangle-shaped log fort, burned down in 1608 and was replaced by a five-sided structure.

9 Prosperity The colony discovered a basis for prosperity in 1613 when colonist John Rolfe began the cultivation of tobacco; he also married (1614) Pocahontas, daughter of the Indian chief Powhatan, –w–which temporarily promoted peaceful relations with the Indians. In 1619 the first representative assembly in America was held at Jamestown, which remained the capital of Virginia throughout the 17th century. In the same year, at Jamestown, the first black indentured servants, eventually becoming slaves, were introduced into the original 13 colonies.

10 Plymouth In the reign of Elizabeth I, queen of England, one of the sects of Puritans known as Brownists separated from the new Protestant Church of England and after much persecution by the Crown, took refuge in the Netherlands. –But they soon felt pressure from the Netherlands’ Government to leave They finally determined to immigrate to America. A group of London investors financed them in exchange for most of their produce from America during their first six years.

11 Desperate Voyage Their ship, the Mayflower, taking on many other passengers to fill the boat, sailed from Plymouth, England, for America on Sept. 16, 1620. When they reached the American coast, strong winds drove the Mayflower into Provincetown Harbor, at the end of Cape Cod. Because their charter stated that they were to settle in Virginia, many passengers considered it non- binding

12 After some exploration they settled on the site of what is now Plymouth, Mass. The Plymouth Colony later united with other New England colonies to form the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691. In its place, they wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact Forming the first constitutional American political democracy. Mayflower Compact

13 Back in England: Charles I Ruled 1625-49, opposed by a civil war in 1642 Son of James I Problems with Parliament increased The major conflict was between king and Parliament, of monarchy by divine right, and Parliament's insistence on its own independent rights. The Colony of Carolina in North America was named for Charles I, as was the major city of Charleston. Carolina later separated into North Carolina and South Carolina, House of Lord and House of Commons Established

14 Parliamentary Parties Tories: for a strong king, tended to be Anglicans & landless nobles (who got their titles from the king) Whigs: for a strong Parliament, tended to be Anglicans who supported religious freedom, as well as merchants and lawyers; also included Puritans

15 1642 Civil War Erupted because Charles I refused to let Parliament meet from 1629-40. When they finally did meet, refused to give him money unless he agreed to limit his own powers. Tories willing to fight nicknamed “Cavaliers” (Fr. Chevalier=knight) Puritans flocked to the banner of General Oliver Cromwell; known as “Roundheads” for their closely cropped, plain hair, in contrast with the fashionably long haired Cavaliers Puritanism swept the land; arts and sciences that flourished since Elizabeth went underground

16 1649 King Beheaded Charles fled to Scotland, was captured, brought to London, then executed Monarchists proclaimed the older son of the king, also Charles, as King Charles II. Charles II was recognized by the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of Ireland, and was crowned King of Scots in Scotland in 1651. Although he was proclaimed King at Jersey, Charles was unable to secure the crown of England, and consequently fled to France and exile. Commonwealth, rather than kingdom, established

17 Interregnum Latin for “between kings,” 1649-60 England became a “Protectorate” instead of a commonwealth with Cromwell as “Lord Protector” Scotland & Ireland conquered (hence Ireland’s anti-Protestant attitude) Oliver dies in 1658, his son Richard now Lord Protector Richard proves to be inept, so people overthrow him in 1660, ask for monarchy

18 Restoration & Charles II In 1660, Charles Stuart (Charles I’s son), in exile in France, is invited back Becomes Charles II Most of the current Crown Jewels date from his coronation Reigned until his death in 1685

19 In 1664 Charles II decided that he would give the territory between Connecticut and Maryland to his brother James, Duke of York. –Provided that the Duke of York seized it from the Dutch and settled colonists there.

20 New Netherlands Amsterdam had become the world’s financial center After the British defeat of the Spanish Armada, The Dutch fleet was the greatest in the world. In 1609 the English navigator Henry Hudson made an extensive exploration of the area To which the Dutch laid claim on the basis of Hudson’s explorations The Dutch had thrown of Spanish financial control in Europe and entered a period of frantic economic expansion.

21 New Netherlands In 1625 a Dutch trading post, called New Amsterdam, was established on southern Manhattan Island.

22 Peter Minuit To secure the Dutch claim, (1626) Peter Minuit bought Manhattan for Dutch West India Co. from Man-a-hat-a Indians during summer for goods valued at $24; named island New Amsterdam.

23 The Indians did not regard land as something to buy and sell, something of wealth. To them, it was just there to use, like the air and water. And so, the Indians were happy with the trinkets they received in the trade.

24 The same year, New Amsterdam became the administration center of New Netherlands and was permanently settled. Since Holland was one of the more desirable cities in the world to live in, people of different nationalities populated New Amsterdam. Looking for economic opportunity

25 New Management Under the orders of James, Duke of York, a fleet of English warships seized New Amsterdam in 1664 without a shot fired –The Mayor bellowed orders to defend the colony, but he could not motivate the diverse colony. Over 25% of the colony were of other nationalities. –The settlement was renamed New York in honor of the duke.

26 Although the Dutch were around for only 50 years, their impression still remains: The original stockade wall on the North end of New Amsterdam… Is called Wall Street today

27 Dutch Villages… Would become NY boroughs Haarlem Breukelen

28 “New” Jersey James assigned land South of the Hudson River to two close friends, Sir George Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley who named it after the island of Jersey in the English Channel.

29 Settlement English Settlers on the Western End of Long Island saw their opportunity to acquire land on the Jersey Shore. A party of Men journeyed by boat to the Highlands and made a deal with the Indians for the purchase of land south of the Raritan River to what is today the Navesink River, known as the Middletown Tract.

30 Monmouth County Three “villages” were established near- simultaneously, including the short-lived Portland Point located near Atlantic Highlands, Shrewsbury, south of the Navesink River, and the village of Middletown, which was, in a rough geographic sense, in the “middle” of the other 2.

31 Monmouth County In the beginning (1665) both Middletown and Shrewsbury were settled by Presbyterians (Scottish Calvinists) and Quakers (Society of Friends) The settlers built their towns in compact forms for common defense and social interaction

32 THE MONMOUTH PATENT This patent, which played an important part in the settlement of New Jersey by English-speaking people, was granted to twelve men, known as the Monmouth Patentees, and was both a political and a land document. The Monmouth Patent granted to these men a certain part of what is now Monmouth county, under the condition that within three years they should settle one hundred families at Middletown and a like number at Shrewsbury.

33 Middletown The town of Middletown, Monmouth County, New Jersey had its beginnings on January 25, 1664 when: –“(12 men) made the first purchase of land in what is now Monmouth County, New Jersey, from the Indians." Formal records for Middletown began in 1667 with "The First Town Book in Middletown." Middletown was laid out with an English nucleated grid, a series of 36 lots placed north and south of an old Indian trail, renamed the Kings Highway, a land-division pattern that still exists.

34 Schism of Middletown Middletown was split in 1848 by the formation of Raritan Township, a section that included the future Holmdel, Hazlet and Aberdeen townships and the boroughs of Matawan, Keyport, Union Beach and most of Keansburg. Middletown Township’s borders later remained relatively stable, changing only for the secession of Atlantic Highlands and Highlands in 1887 and 1900 respectively, and for a few other minor adjustments.

35 Hazlet Hazlet derived its name from a Dr. John Hazlett who had an estate in Raritan Township near the Keyport- Holmdel Turnpike, now Holmdel Road.

36 Dr. John Hazlett The government decided to put a Railroad Station for produce (the region was farms) on the train line running from New York to Long Branch. Although the region was known as Bethany (Hence Bethany Road), It was not a well known area; so the station was named for Holmdel, a few miles down the road. When the Federal Government decided a post office was necessary, they needed a name, as Holmdel already had one. They chose the name of the property that bordered the rail line, the property of Dr. John Hazlett.

37 Raritan to Hazlet 1848 Raritan Township, which would later become Hazlet, is founded. 1925 Gov. George Silzer signs a bill splitting Union Beach from Raritan. 1967 Raritan Township's name is changed to Hazlet to give it a clearer identity. Before the change, it was one of three towns known as Raritan in the state.

38 James II Formerly the Duke of York Brother of Charles II, ruled until 1689 He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Wanted to restore Catholicism Wanted absolute monarchy again James had a son, raised him as Catholic

39 The Revolution of 1688 The people forced James II to abdicate for fear of another Catholic king. James's opponents invited William of Orange, –stadholder of the Netherlands – Protestant husband of the king's elder daughter, Mary, –to come to safeguard Mary's inheritance. When William landed, James fled, his army having deserted to William. His reign marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover.

40 1702 The Augustan Age Parliament won absolute control over the monarchy, Queen, Anne (1702-14) Younger daughter of James II a popular figurehead Under Anne, literature reached a height similar to that of Rome under Emperor Augustus, hence the era’s name

41 1707 Act of Union Unifies Scotland & England Ireland is a subject nation Nation known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

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