6 As soon as the 4 zones were established each Ally power began establishing their own rules going against this policyBerlin, Germany’s capitol, was situated in the Soviet Union zoneIt was granted separate status, and was divided into 4 zones again for each Allie power
8 There began to be disagreements between the Allies as to what their mission was in Germany How did The West respond?Page 891 – Marshal Plan
9 Soviet Union began putting restrictions on traffic to Berlin from Western Zones (March 30, 1948)
10 The US had to figure out the intentions of the Soviets Before they could do this, West Berlin was running out of food and suppliesThe Western zones had no way of getting these supplies to their people, except by airThe airlift began on June 26, 1948, delivering food and fuel to West BerlinThe airlifts continued until Sept. 1948
13 March they entered negotiations with USA, UK and France to lift the blockade. Results were a 3 point plan;Restriction on communications, transportation and trade between Berlin and Western zones will be removed May 9, 1949Restrictions the Western zones imposed will be removed May 9, 1949On May 23, 1949, the 4 powers will meet in Paris to discuss questions surrounding Germany and the currency
15 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Military or defense alliance formed in 1949 by 12 countries in Western Europe and North AmericaOriginal purpose – to protect its members from a possible attack from the Soviet Union (Containment)First peacetime alliance in U.S. historyAn alliance of nations with shared values. All members are DEMOCRACIES
16 NATO Treaty – Article 5“The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all…”No NATO member was ever attacked during the Cold War – it never had to use its military forces
17 Who is in NATO? 1949 – 12 Original Members U.S. Canada BritainFrance Iceland PortugalBelgium Netherlands Luxembourg1952 – A Little Farther from the North Atlantic (Demonstration of Truman Doctrine)Greece Turkey1954 – A New DemocracyGermany1982 – Death of Fascist Dictator FrancoSpain
19 North Korea Invades South Korea… In 1950, Communist North Korea, supported by Communist China invaded South Korea.The US supported South Korea against this Communist aggression.Under American influence the Security Council of the United Nations condemned the attack by North Korea and called on UN members “to render every assistance” to South Korea.
21 The Korean WarAt first UN troops fought only North Korea (who were armed by the Soviets.The UN forces had to fight a massive Chinese army that entered the war to support the North Koreans.However, neither side was able to defeat one another.The war, much like the first World War, settled into a war of limited movement.When the war ended the Koreans were divided in much the same way they had been before the war.
26 The Warsaw Pact 1955 - The Soviet response to the creation of NATO Consisted of the Soviet Union and its six satellite countries in Eastern EuropeEast GermanyPolandHungaryCzechoslovakiaBulgariaRomaniaThe Warsaw Pact no longer exists
27 1956 - Soviet union Suppresses Hungarian Revolt Following nearly two weeks of protest and political instability in Hungary, Soviet tanks and troops viciously crush the protests. Thousands were killed and wounded, and nearly a quarter-million Hungarians fled the country.
30 Berlin was a massive problem for East Germany Berlin was a massive problem for East Germany. It was an escape route through to the West. Between 1945 and 1961 nearly one-sixth of the East German population had fled to the West.The new leader of the USSR, Khrushchev, like Stalin, wanted the West out of Berlin. Both sides accused the other of spying (which was entirely accurate!) and the Soviets continued to see Western influence in Berlin as dangerous and troublesome.
31 Containing the East Berliners – the Wall In August 1961 Berliners awoke to find their city divided in half. The construction of the Berlin Wall had begun. East German guards patrolled the wall and shot anyone trying to escape over it.
32 What effect did the wall have? Graph showing the number of defectors to the West.What do you notice about the number of defectors after 1961? What does this tell you about the success of the Berlin Wall?
33 “The building of the wall was at once a sign of failure and success “The building of the wall was at once a sign of failure and success. It was a sign that there would be no settlement … of the problem of divided Germany … But it also reduced the possibilities of future crises in Berlin. The wall contributed to peaceful co-existence …” Peter Lane, 1985.
37 The Bay of Pigs Invasion Started with Eisenhower and followed with Kennedy.Conceived by the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro, the invasion involved Cuban exiles who had fled Castro’s rule and settled in the United States.The Bay of Pigs mission failed.The President said, however, that he would continue to resist efforts by the communists to control other countries in Western Hemisphere.Kennedy took responsibility for the mission’s failure.37
38 Bay of Pigs Invasion The Failed Invasion Information was leaked early- New York TimesAir strikes failed.Castro prepared for a land attack.Invaders were captured and ransomed back to United States for $52 million in food and aid.Strengthened Castro’s ties to the Soviet Union
39 Cuban Missile CrisisIn 1962, American intelligence agencies photographed Soviet nuclear missile installationsin Cuba.Missile launch site photo, HSUS: p. 957.
41 The missiles at these Cuban sites threatened major cities in the United States. Missile range map, HSUS: p. 957.
42 The Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy assembled a group of advisors, known as the ExComm, to help him plan a response.ExComm military members favored an air strike, perhaps followed by a land invasion of Cuba.Others argued for a naval blockade. Kennedy agreed with this plan.The world watched as Soviet ships carrying missile parts approached the naval blockade. They turned back.ManagingtheCrisisKhrushchev agreed to dismantle the missiles if the United States pledged to never invade Cuba.Both Kennedy and Khrushchev took steps to ease tensions between their countries.They set up a hotline to allow direct communication during times of crisis.The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed, ending atmospheric and underwater testing of nuclear weapons.Effectsof theCrisis
43 To resolve the Cuban missile crisis, Kennedy worked In PublicBehind the ScenesIn a television address, Kennedy blamed Khrushchev for reckless action that threatened world peace.Kennedy initiated a U.S. naval blockade of Cuba.Kennedy told the Soviets that the United States would remove U.S. missiles from Turkey and Italy if the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba.43
44 After six tense days, the Soviets backed off. Nikita Khrushchev agreed to honor the blockade and removed the missiles.The crisis prompted the two leaders to establish a period of cooperation. They set up a hot line between Washington, D.C. and Moscow to improve communication.
45 Conflict Between France & Vietnam The Vietnam War grew out of the long conflict between France and Vietnam.In July 1954, after one hundred years of colonial rule a defeated France was forced to leave Vietnam.
46 The Geneva Peace Accords The Geneva Peace Accords, signed by France and Vietnam in the summer of 1954, provided for the temporary partition of Vietnam at the 17th parallel,In the North, a communist regime, supported by the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, set up its headquarters in Hanoi under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh.
47 The Vietnam war occurred in Vietnam The Vietnam war occurred in Vietnam. Laos and Cambodia during 1959 and 30 april1975. the war started when communist north Vietnam tried to take over the republic of south Vietnam. It was the longest war America ad ever fought in and it lasted 15 years.North Vietnam wanted to take over South Vietnam. If they succeeded then it’ll be likely that Laos and Cambodia will turn Communist.Laos and Cambodia might’ve turned Communist because they are so vulnerable
48 Was there a chance of success? Against:-America couldn't find the guerrillas because they were really good at blending inn with everyone. The Americans couldn’t tell if they guerrillas were normally civilians. They were always ready to ambush them. Also the people in south Vietnam would not tell the American troops were the guerrillas were hiding.FOR:-American troops in Vietnam had vastly superior weapons than the Vietcong. American soldiers had machine guns and were supported by tanks and helicopters. They had napalm which was a type of petroleum jelly which burns the skin. The Americans used this to burn down all of the jungles and see where the guerrillas were hiding.
50 August 1, 1975 The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland. Thirty-five states, including the USA, Canada, and most European states except Albania, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West. The Helsinki Accords, however, were not binding as they did not have treaty status.