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Presentation on theme: "COLD WAR TIMELINE."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Berlin Blockade

3 Background Information
WW2 ended in August 1945, in Japan, with the bombing of Hiroshima

4 The 4 allied forces had to decide what to do with Germany
Britain, USA Russia France

5 Great Britain Soviet Union- Russia France USA

6 As soon as the 4 zones were established each Ally power began establishing their own rules going against this policy Berlin, Germany’s capitol, was situated in the Soviet Union zone It was granted separate status, and was divided into 4 zones again for each Allie power

7 Berlin- 1945

8 There began to be disagreements between the Allies as to what their mission was in Germany
How did The West respond? Page 891 – Marshal Plan

9 Soviet Union began putting restrictions on traffic to Berlin from Western Zones (March 30, 1948)

10 The US had to figure out the intentions of the Soviets
Before they could do this, West Berlin was running out of food and supplies The Western zones had no way of getting these supplies to their people, except by air The airlift began on June 26, 1948, delivering food and fuel to West Berlin The airlifts continued until Sept. 1948



13 March they entered negotiations with USA, UK and France to lift the blockade. Results were a 3 point plan; Restriction on communications, transportation and trade between Berlin and Western zones will be removed May 9, 1949 Restrictions the Western zones imposed will be removed May 9, 1949 On May 23, 1949, the 4 powers will meet in Paris to discuss questions surrounding Germany and the currency

14 NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

15 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Military or defense alliance formed in 1949 by 12 countries in Western Europe and North America Original purpose – to protect its members from a possible attack from the Soviet Union (Containment) First peacetime alliance in U.S. history An alliance of nations with shared values. All members are DEMOCRACIES

16 NATO Treaty – Article 5 “The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all…” No NATO member was ever attacked during the Cold War – it never had to use its military forces

17 Who is in NATO? 1949 – 12 Original Members
U.S. Canada Britain France Iceland Portugal Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg 1952 – A Little Farther from the North Atlantic (Demonstration of Truman Doctrine) Greece Turkey 1954 – A New Democracy Germany 1982 – Death of Fascist Dictator Franco Spain

18 The NATO Alliance

19 North Korea Invades South Korea…
In 1950, Communist North Korea, supported by Communist China invaded South Korea. The US supported South Korea against this Communist aggression. Under American influence the Security Council of the United Nations condemned the attack by North Korea and called on UN members “to render every assistance” to South Korea.


21 The Korean War At first UN troops fought only North Korea (who were armed by the Soviets. The UN forces had to fight a massive Chinese army that entered the war to support the North Koreans. However, neither side was able to defeat one another. The war, much like the first World War, settled into a war of limited movement. When the war ended the Koreans were divided in much the same way they had been before the war.


23 Demilitarized Zone Area between South & North


25 First Hydrogen bomb: 1952

26 The Warsaw Pact 1955 - The Soviet response to the creation of NATO
Consisted of the Soviet Union and its six satellite countries in Eastern Europe East Germany Poland Hungary Czechoslovakia Bulgaria Romania The Warsaw Pact no longer exists

27 1956 - Soviet union Suppresses Hungarian Revolt
Following nearly two weeks of protest and political instability in Hungary, Soviet tanks and troops viciously crush the protests. Thousands were killed and wounded, and nearly a quarter-million Hungarians fled the country.


29 1957 – Sputnik

30 Berlin was a massive problem for East Germany
Berlin was a massive problem for East Germany. It was an escape route through to the West. Between 1945 and 1961 nearly one-sixth of the East German population had fled to the West. The new leader of the USSR, Khrushchev, like Stalin, wanted the West out of Berlin. Both sides accused the other of spying (which was entirely accurate!) and the Soviets continued to see Western influence in Berlin as dangerous and troublesome.

31 Containing the East Berliners – the Wall
In August 1961 Berliners awoke to find their city divided in half. The construction of the Berlin Wall had begun. East German guards patrolled the wall and shot anyone trying to escape over it.

32 What effect did the wall have?
Graph showing the number of defectors to the West. What do you notice about the number of defectors after 1961? What does this tell you about the success of the Berlin Wall?

33 “The building of the wall was at once a sign of failure and success
“The building of the wall was at once a sign of failure and success. It was a sign that there would be no settlement … of the problem of divided Germany … But it also reduced the possibilities of future crises in Berlin. The wall contributed to peaceful co-existence …” Peter Lane, 1985.


35 Bay of Pigs Invasion, Berlin Crisis, and Cuban Missile Crisis 1961-62


37 The Bay of Pigs Invasion
Started with Eisenhower and followed with Kennedy. Conceived by the CIA to overthrow Fidel Castro, the invasion involved Cuban exiles who had fled Castro’s rule and settled in the United States. The Bay of Pigs mission failed. The President said, however, that he would continue to resist efforts by the communists to control other countries in Western Hemisphere. Kennedy took responsibility for the mission’s failure. 37

38 Bay of Pigs Invasion The Failed Invasion
Information was leaked early- New York Times Air strikes failed. Castro prepared for a land attack. Invaders were captured and ransomed back to United States for $52 million in food and aid. Strengthened Castro’s ties to the Soviet Union

39 Cuban Missile Crisis In 1962, American intelligence agencies photographed Soviet nuclear missile installations in Cuba. Missile launch site photo, HSUS: p. 957.


41 The missiles at these Cuban sites threatened major cities in the United States.
Missile range map, HSUS: p. 957.

42 The Cuban Missile Crisis
Kennedy assembled a group of advisors, known as the ExComm, to help him plan a response. ExComm military members favored an air strike, perhaps followed by a land invasion of Cuba. Others argued for a naval blockade. Kennedy agreed with this plan. The world watched as Soviet ships carrying missile parts approached the naval blockade. They turned back. Managing the Crisis Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missiles if the United States pledged to never invade Cuba. Both Kennedy and Khrushchev took steps to ease tensions between their countries. They set up a hotline to allow direct communication during times of crisis. The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed, ending atmospheric and underwater testing of nuclear weapons. Effects of the Crisis

43 To resolve the Cuban missile crisis, Kennedy worked
In Public Behind the Scenes In a television address, Kennedy blamed Khrushchev for reckless action that threatened world peace. Kennedy initiated a U.S. naval blockade of Cuba. Kennedy told the Soviets that the United States would remove U.S. missiles from Turkey and Italy if the Soviets removed their missiles from Cuba. 43

44 After six tense days, the Soviets backed off.
Nikita Khrushchev agreed to honor the blockade and removed the missiles. The crisis prompted the two leaders to establish a period of cooperation. They set up a hot line between Washington, D.C. and Moscow to improve communication.

45 Conflict Between France & Vietnam
The Vietnam War grew out of the long conflict between France and Vietnam. In July 1954, after one hundred years of colonial rule a defeated France was forced to leave Vietnam.

46 The Geneva Peace Accords
The Geneva Peace Accords, signed by France and Vietnam in the summer of 1954, provided for the temporary partition of Vietnam at the 17th parallel, In the North, a communist regime, supported by the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China, set up its headquarters in Hanoi under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh.

47 The Vietnam war occurred in Vietnam
The Vietnam war occurred in Vietnam. Laos and Cambodia during 1959 and 30 april1975. the war started when communist north Vietnam tried to take over the republic of south Vietnam. It was the longest war America ad ever fought in and it lasted 15 years. North Vietnam wanted to take over South Vietnam. If they succeeded then it’ll be likely that Laos and Cambodia will turn Communist. Laos and Cambodia might’ve turned Communist because they are so vulnerable

48 Was there a chance of success?
Against:- America couldn't find the guerrillas because they were really good at blending inn with everyone. The Americans couldn’t tell if they guerrillas were normally civilians. They were always ready to ambush them. Also the people in south Vietnam would not tell the American troops were the guerrillas were hiding. FOR:- American troops in Vietnam had vastly superior weapons than the Vietcong. American soldiers had machine guns and were supported by tanks and helicopters. They had napalm which was a type of petroleum jelly which burns the skin. The Americans used this to burn down all of the jungles and see where the guerrillas were hiding.

49 Deaths During the War

50 August 1, 1975 The Helsinki Accords, Helsinki Final Act, or Helsinki Declaration was the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe held in Finlandia Hall of Helsinki, Finland. Thirty-five states, including the USA, Canada, and most European states except Albania, signed the declaration in an attempt to improve relations between the Communist bloc and the West. The Helsinki Accords, however, were not binding as they did not have treaty status.

51 Berlin Wall falling down 1989


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