Presentation on theme: " In the 5 th Century, warfare between the Byzantine and Persian Empires interrupted trading routes to East Asia Trade routes shifted to sea routes connecting."— Presentation transcript:
In the 5 th Century, warfare between the Byzantine and Persian Empires interrupted trading routes to East Asia Trade routes shifted to sea routes connecting India, Arabia and the Red Sea The city of Mecca became an important stop along the trade routes Islam developed in Mecca and spread throughout the world Within 100 years Islam grew to control an area larger than the Roman Empire
Islam was founded by Mohammed Mohammed was a merchant and shepherd in Mecca He often meditated in a cave near Mecca On one occasion, Mohammed had a vision from the Angel Gabriel who commanded him to convert the Arab tribes to believe in a single God known as “Allah” Mohammed and his ideals became very popular but was forced to flee Mecca.
The Kaaba was a temple filled with pagan idols, which people travelled to Mecca to worship at. Mohammed was spreading a monotheistic religion and preaching against pagan idol worship. Merchants made their money off of these religious pilgrimages and were threatened by his growing influence.
Muhammed fled Mecca to Medina, where he gained a larger following This event is known as Hijrah, and is the starting point of the Muslim Calendar Mohammed returned to Mecca a few years later with an army to conquer Mecca, in what has become known as Jihad (Holy War)
The Quran is the sacred text of Islam Muslims believe it records the word of God revealed to Mohammed by Gabriel. It discusses forms of worship, proper conduct and the treatment of women The fundamental doctrine of the Quran: “There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet.”
Muslims worship God directly without the intercession of a Priest or clergy The Five Pillars of Islam make up the basic religious duties that all Muslims must fulfill Declaration of faith in one God Prayer- 5 times daily, facing toward Mecca Charity Fasting during the month of Ramadan Hajj- Pilgrimage to Mecca
Islam united various Arab tribes with the common language of Arabic Strengthened by their newfound unity, they set out on a holy war against non-believers They fought with great enthusiasm to gain entry in to Heaven. Arab Muslims succeeded in creating a vast empire that extended from the Indus River Valley into Europe as far west as Spain
Began in Mecca (Saudi Arabia) Spread through trade routes and holy wars against non-believers Spread to the African Empires through the salt and gold trading routes Muslim empire eventually extended from the Indus River Valley as far west as Spain, and down into the early African Empires
Mohammed Merchant & Shepherd from Mecca Had a vision from God to convert the Arab tribes to believe in a single God “Allah” Fled Mecca in fear of his life in 622 (known as Hijra) Returned with an army in 632 to retake Mecca (known as Jihad or “holy war”) Beliefs There is no God but Allah (Monotheistic) Mohammed is a prophet from God The Quran is the sacred text The Five Pillars of Islam Faith in one God Prayer Charity Fasting Pilgrimage
Abu Bakr- 1 st caliph (successor to the prophet). Was one of Muhammad’s oldest friends, brought Arabic tribes together and expanded influence northward. Umar- 2 nd caliph. Further expanded influence, conquered Persian empire. Very tolerant to Christians and Jews, “people of the book” Many could choose to accept Islam or simply pay extra taxes Uthman- 3 rd caliph, killed because he favored his own tribe Ali- 4 th caliph, supporters of Uthman thought Ali helped the killers and war broke out. Assassinated Mu’awiyah- 5 th caliph, had supported Uthman and accused Ali
Shi’ah Muslims- Followers of Ali, believed that only his descendants (imams) should be caliphs. 10% of Muslim population Sunni Muslims- Most Muslims accepted Mu-awiyah as caliph. Believe that agreement among Muslim people should settle religious matters. Majority of Muslim population Sufi Muslims- Muslim mystics, tried to live simple lives centered on God.
Tariq- a Berber (North African Muslim) general led Moorish army to Spain in 711 CE Moors- The Muslims who made Spain their home Tried to take France but failed, continued to rule parts of Spain for over 700 years
Turks were nomadic groups from central Asia that converted to Islam Turks gradually took political power away from caliph, were led by a Sultan Sultan- leader of the Turks who claimed to serve the caliph Eventually took Baghdad, expanded influence outward Won lands as far away as north India Eventually growth was slowed by outsiders Lost control of cities to Christians in the Crusades Mongols from the east destroyed Baghdad
Trade very important Islam began in Mecca, which was central to trade between Asia, Africa, and Europe Muhammad was a merchant Cultural diffusion Muslim cities were centers of learning, particularly for science and mathematics Knowledge was spread into Europe by Christian and Jewish scholars
Quran guided religious and daily life Slavery was common, but the Quran encouraged people to free their slaves Women were treated fairly and could control property. Could refuse an arranged marriage and could keep their own money and remarry if divorced.
Students attended religious study groups at mosques Advanced students attended school to study science, math, and law
Lots of medical studies and advancements Surgical procedures, treatment of smallpox and other diseases, and discovery of medicines Geography was important because of trade Maps were improved- modified old Greek maps Created the astrolabe- calculate latitude based on position of the stars Math- Our number system is based on the Arabic number system
Architecture Mosques, palaces, libraries served to show glory of Islam Mosques- Muslim houses of worship Minaret- Tower attached to the outside of a mosque
Literature and poetry One Thousand and One Nights- a collection of Muslims stories and folk tales Sinbad the Sailor, Aladdin, Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves Preserved ancient Greek literature Otherwise would have been lost