Presentation on theme: "Communists Take Power in China"— Presentation transcript:
1Communists Take Power in China Communists vs. Nationalists
2During and After WWII During WWII – China fought with the Allies Japan occupied and devastated most of China’s citiesChina’s death toll (10-22 million) was second to Russia’s million)1945 – opposing Chinese armies faced each other
3Mao Zedong – Communist Leader Stronghold in North Western China (during WW2)Organized peasants for guerrilla warfare against Japan – was highly successfulPeasants gave their loyalty to communists because they were taught better food production.1945 – Communists controlled much of Northern China.
4Jiang Jieshi – Nationalists Dominated southwestern ChinaHad an army of 2.5 million men– the U.S. sent the Nationalists about $1.5 billion to fight the Japanese.Corrupt officers took most of the money and did little to fight the Japanese.After Japan surrendered – the Communists and Nationalist resumed fighting each other
5Civil WarAt first the Nationalists had the advantage: a larger army, and $2 billion in aid from the U.S.However, they did little to gain popular support.Nationalist soldiers left for the Communist party as the economy fell.1949 – China’s major cities fell to the well-trained Red (Communist) forces.
6People’s Republic of China -Red forces were well-trained and Mao pro-mised to return the land to the peasants.Jiang’s left-over army fled south.Oct – Mao con-trolled the country and proclaimed the People’s Republic of China
7Next….Jiang and other Nationalist leaders fled to the island of Taiwan (Formosa). This became Nationalist China.Mao’s victory fueled U.S. anti-Communist feelings.U.S. feelings got worse when China and Soviets signed a Treaty of Friendship.Many people in the U.S. thought the Communists wanted to conquer the world!
8Two Chinas: Taiwan = Nationalist China; 13,000 sq. miles Mainland = People’s Republic of China; 3.5 mill. sq. mi.Their existence and conflicting international loyalties intensified the Cold War.
9The Superpowers (U.S. and Soviet Union) React: U.S.: helped Jiang in Taiwan set up a Nationalist government (Republic of China).Tried to halt Soviet expansion in AsiaSoviets: gave financial, military, and technical aid to Communist ChinaThe Chinese and Soviets pledged to come to each other’s defense if either was attacked.
10Communist China Expands: Tibet : Brutal assault and take-over of TibetChina promised autonomy to those who followed the Dalai Lama.Late 1950s – China tightened control and the Dalai Lama fled to India.
11There was a failed revolt in Tibet India welcomed Tibetan refugeesResentment builds between India and China1962: They clashed briefly over the unclear borderResentment continues to this day
12**** Learn 360 “War Comes to Tibet” 3:35 No notes – just view
13A New “Mandate of Heaven” Mandate of Heaven justified rebellion against an unjust, tyrannical, or incompetent ruler.If a rebellion was successful in overthrowing the emperor, then it was a sign that he had lost the Mandate of Heaven and the rebel leader had gained it.
14In addition, unlike the hereditary Divine Right of Kings, the Mandate of Heaven did not depend upon royal or even noble birth.Any successful rebel leader could become emperor with Heaven's approval, even if he was born a peasant.Failing Leader: Jiang JieshiRebel leader who gained “Mandate” = Mao Zedong
15Mao’s Brand of Marxist Socialism There were two parallel organizations: Communist Party and the national government.Mao heads both until 1959.Mao was determined to reshape China’s economy80% of people lived in rural areas – but owned no land.Instead 10% of the rural population was controlled 70% of the farmland.
16Agrarian Reform Law of 1950 Mao seized the holdings of the landlords. Mao killed more than a million of the landlords who resisted.He then divided the land among the peasants.To further socialist principles – the govt. forced peasants to join collective farms ( households).
19Industry and Business1953 – Five Year Plan that set high production goals for industry.1957 – China’s output of coal, cement, steel and electricity had increased dramatically
20The Great Leap ForwardEarly 1958 – to expand the success of the First Five Year PlanCalled for larger collective farms (communes)End of 1958 – 26,000 communes were created.One commune = 15,000; supported 25,000 people
21Communal Life Peasants worked the land together. Ate in communal dining roomsSlept in dormitoriesCommunal nurseries for childrenOwned nothing!Only the state profited by their work – they had no incentive to work hard.
22Great Leap – A Failure A Giant Step Backward Poor planningInefficient ‘back-yard’ industries hampered growth1961 – massive crop failures = famineKilled 20 million peopleProgram ended“Back Yard” smelters
23The Great FamineCommunes were over populated and not enough food to feed everyone.Massive crop failuresDistribution of food was not organized – lots of waste.Preferential treatment to ‘favorites’ in communes.
24People hid provisions.Mao refused to accept the truth.The rest of the world was not aware of the famine because of China’s “isolationism.”
26******** You Tube: “China Under Mao – Great Leap Forward” 12:57
27Relationship with Soviet Union Late 1950s – relationship with Soviet Union starts to crumble.No more spirit of cooperation between the two.Each sought to lead the worldwide Communist movement.Faced numerous territorial disputes over longest shared border.
28New Policies and Mao’s Response Mao reduced his role in government after the Great Leap failure and break from Soviet Union.Others moved away from Mao’s strict socialist ideas: they lived in their own homes.People sold crops they grew on small private plots.Factory workers could get wage increases and promotions.
29Cultural RevolutionMao thought new economic policies weakened the Communist goal of social equality.He was determined to revive the revolution1966 – Urged young people to “learn revolution by making revolution.”
30Red GuardsMillions of high school and college students left their classrooms and formed militia units.They led the Cultural RevolutionGoal: to establish a society of peasants and workers in which all were equal.
31New “Hero” Was the peasant who worked with his/her hands. Intellectual and artistic activity was useless and dangerous.Process: they shut down colleges and schools.Targeted anyone who resisted the regime.
32Intellectuals had to “purify” themselves by doing hard labor in remote villages. Children turned in their parents, teachers, doctors – any one they thought ‘subversive.’Thousands were executed or imprisoned.Their widespread chaos threatened farm production and closed down factories.Civil war seemed possible.1968 – Even Mao admitted the Cultural Revolution had to stop.
34Zhou EnlaiChinese Communist party founder and premier since 1949, began to restore order.Red Guards were exiled to the countryside; others were arrested and some executed.While China was trying to become stable, the Cold War continued to rage.
35Assignment:Answer the following questions: Due next class.How did the Chinese Communists increase their power during WWII?What actions did the Nationalists take during WWII?3. What was the goal of the Cultural Revolution?