Presentation on theme: "The Western Crossroads Objective: Identify conflicts between the Native Americans as people settled on the Western Frontier Do Now: What do you think of."— Presentation transcript:
The Western Crossroads Objective: Identify conflicts between the Native Americans as people settled on the Western Frontier Do Now: What do you think of when you hear “Western Frontier”?
Indian Country 1851: Treaty of Fort Laramie guaranteed American Indian land rights on the Great Plains – Again & again, the NAs were moved, lied to, not compensated when promised, treaties not honored Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA): govn’t agency responsible for managing AI issues – Hoped that keeping NAs on reservations would force them to become farmers and abandon their traditions – NAs should “be placed in positions where they can be controlled, and finally compelled by stern necessity to resort to agricultural labor or starve” ~BIA Commissioner Luke Lea
The Struggle Begins Many Plains Indians refused to relocate to reservations & rejected settled life ~20K U.S. Army troops were assigned to confine the tribes to the reservations Violent conflicts erupted
Sand Creek Colorado territory; summer 1864 Cheyenne (Black Kettle) & Arapaho tribes Black Kettle was tired of fighting – Camped along Sand Creek on way to make peace – Raised U.S. flag above his lodge as a sign of peace Col. John M. Chivington & his 700 volunteers opened fire on Black Kettle’s group killing ~200 (mostly women & children)
Reactions to Sand Creek Chivington defended his actions: “It is right and honorable to use any means under God’s heaven to kill Indians.” Many Americans horrified Congressional committee investigated and some members called for reform of the govn’t Indian policy Prompted raids by the Arapaho, Cheyenne, & Sioux Treaty of Medicine Lodge signed in 1867 – Southern Plains Indians agreed to give up much of their lands in exchange for reservations in Indian Territory 2 nd Treaty of Fort Laramie signed in 1868 – Sioux agreed to move to a reservation in the Black Hills of SD
Little Bighorn Black Hills, MT; June 25, 1876 US govn’t violated Treaty of Ft. Laramie & sent army expedition to search for gold – They found it & tried to negotiated a new treaty with the Sioux (who refused) Sioux relatively successful at the Battle of the Rosebud Sitting Bull – important leader of the Sioux – Strongly opposed the intrusion of non-Indians onto Sioux lands – Thought those who moved onto reservations were fools
Custer’s Last Stand LTC George Armstrong Custer sent 600 troops of 7 th Calvary to attack Sioux camp @ Little Bighorn – After the final attack, Custer & all of his men lay dead Last victory for the Sioux
Reaction to Little Big Horn Shocked by Custer’s defeat, the army increased its efforts to move NA’s onto reservations
Sitting Bull Killed at the Pine Ridge Reservation on December 15, 1890, along with 14 others
Wounded Knee SD; December 29, 1890 Many Sioux joined with leader, Big Foot – Govn’t officials wanted to arrest him b/c they feared he’d cause trouble – Big Foot attempted to avoid conflict with troops & camped along Wounded Knee Creek w/350 others Col. James Forsyth & men found In the AM, Forsyth ordered the seizure of Indian rifles – When dissatisfied w/what the Sioux surrendered, they began to search teepees
Shortly, both sides began shooting – In the end, at least 150 Sioux & 30 U.S. soldiers had been killed Shocked many Americans Marked the end of the bloody conflict on the Plains
1851: Treaty of Ft. Laramie 1876: Little Bighorn 1876: Rosebud 1890: Wounded Knee 1867: Treaty of Medicine Lodge 1864: Sand Creek 1868: 2 nd Treaty of Ft. Laramie
Nez Perce Govn’t ordered them to relocate to a reservation in Idaho Chief Joseph agreed, rather than turning to violence – Despite this, some young Nez Perce killed 4 white settlers and the Nez Perce fled east and then north (hoping to reach Canada), fearing war Surrendered to the U.S. Army < 40 miles from the Canadian border
Chief Joseph I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed… It is cold and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are--perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children and see how many I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs. I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever.
Geronimo Apache leader 1881: He & 75 followers fled their reservation in Arizona when army troops moved into the territory – They raided settlements throughout Arizona & Mexico 1885: Briefly surrendered & lived on the reservation but then fled again with even more followers (> 130)
Final Surrender September 4, 1886 He & his followers were sent to FL as POWs Marked the end of armed resistance to the reservation system in the Southwest
Dawes General Allotment Act Required that Indian lands be surveyed & that NA families receive an allotment of 160 acres of reservation for farming – This was with hopes that Indians would assimilate to “white American” culture In less than 50 years, Indians lost more than 2/3 of their land Complete failure for the Indians
Long Walk Forced march of the Navajo from northwestern NM to a reservation in eastern NM Once there, prevented from leaving the reservation – Were given seeds and farming tools but the land not suitable for farming – The few trees were quickly cut down, roots used for firewood Many Navajo died from malnutrition and disease
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