Presentation on theme: "The History of Haiti Adapted from World Book Online."— Presentation transcript:
The History of Haiti Adapted from World Book Online
Christopher Columbus Arrived in 1492 when his ship ran aground Named the island Hispaniola Found gold in what is now the Dominican Republic and other Spanish settlers flocked to the island. They forced the aboriginals to mine and raise food The aboriginals were treated so poorly that by 1530 only a few were left alive and the Spanish brought in Africans as slaves.
The Spanish Leave Spanish settlers began leaving for more prosperous settlements (Mexico and Peru) By 1606 the King of Spain ordered those remaining to move to the city of Santa Domingo (in the Dominican Republic) French, English and Dutch settlers took over the northern and western coasts and became buccaneers that stole Spanish silver and gold In 1667, Spain recognized French control over the western third of the country.
The French The French named its new colony Saint- Domingue and brought in Africans as slaves to develop coffee and spice plantations. By 1788, there were eight times as many slaves as colonists.
The Haitian Revolution In 1771 the slaves rebelled against their French masters and destroyed plantations and towns. Toussaint Louverture, a former slave, took control of the government and restored some order He wanted to separate Saint- Domingue from France and wrote a constitution stating so. When Napoleon I came into power in 1799 he sent an army to capture Toussaint and imprisoned him in France (where he later died).
The Haitian Revolution con ’ t During this time many French soldiers caught yellow fever and died. After a long campaign the African rebels defeated the French and General Jean-Jacques Dessalines (leader of the rebels) proclaimed the colony an independent country named Haiti on January 1, 1804 First black independent nation Under threat of invasion Haiti agreed to pay France for lost land. A debt that took 120 years to repay
The Fight for Control Dessalines became the nation ’ s first chief of state however was killed in 1806 the country was divided in two by other generals (Alexandre Petin and Henri Christophe) In 1818 Jean-Pierre Boyer reunited the country and ruled until the colony revolted in 1844. During the next 70 years 32 different men ruled Haiti. Unrest spread throughout the country.
The US Steps In In 1915, President Woodrow Wilson sent marines to help restore order. He feared other nations may try to take Haiti if unrest continued. They made Haiti make payments on its large debts to other countries It strengthened the government, built highways, schools and hospitals. The US force withdrew in 1934 and Haiti regained control of its affairs. Some foreign investment followed but the upper class mulattoes benefited most. Between 1946 and 1957 the army stepped in to control the country twice.
Francois (Papa Doc) Duvalier In 1957 Francois (Papa Doc) Duvalier, a country doctor, was elected and President. In 1964 he declared himself President for Life. In 1971 the Constitution was amended to allow the president to choose his successor – his son Jean-Claude. Francois died in April 1971 and Jean Claude (only 19 yoa) succeeded him, declared himself as President for Life and ruled as a dictator. The Duvaliers controlled Haiti ’ s armed forces and had a secret police force.
General Henri Namphy In the early 1970 ’ s many people began to leave Haiti because of poor economic conditions and severe treatment by the secret police. In 1986, Haitians staged a revolt against Jean-Claude and he fled. Lieutenant General Henri Namphy became the head of the governement and failed at disbanding the secret police. In 1987 a constitution was adopted that allowed for elections by the people, however in 1988 Namphy overthrew the government and seized power. He declared himself president of a military government.
And it continues … In September 1988, officers from the Presidential guard seized power from Namphy. Lieutenant General Prosper Avril declared himself and ruled as a dictator. He resigned in March 1990. In December 1990 the Haitian people elected Jean-Bertrand Aristide as president. However he was overthrown in September 1991 by the military and fled.
A Trade Boycott Follows The Organization of American States (OAS) led a trade boycott against Haiti to force Aristide ’ s return to power. The UN later imposed a boycott Following the coup many Haitians attempted to flee to the United States in small boats. At first the US sent the refugees back to Haiti. Later, they sent fleeing refugees to the US military base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
Aristide returns to office? On July 3, 1993 the Haitian military agreed to allow Aristide to return to office and restore a democratic government by October 30 th. However, this was not followed through. On September 1994 the US began sending troops to Haiti to force the military to do so. Aristide returned to office in October 1994.
Under Aristide Under Aristide, Haiti suffered economic hardship and political instability. His opponents claimed that elections held in 2000 were fraudulent. As a result, foreign donors refused to release aid to Haiti. Coup attempts and demonstrations both for and against Aristide erupted. Political opposition groups refused to take part in or deal with a government that included Aristide.
2004 A violent rebellion spread across Northern Haiti where the rebels (former members of Haiti military) demanded Aristide ’ s resignation On February 29 th, 2004 Aristide fled to Africa and soon after a US peacekeeping force arrived in Haiti. The Chief of Justice of Haiti ’ s Supreme Court, Boniface Alexandre, became the president of a transitional government. In May of 2004, flash floods caused wide spread destruction. More than 1,400 people were killed and 1,800 were missing (between Haiti and Dominican Republic) In September mudslides were caused by Tropical Storm Jeanne – 3000 killed in Haiti
2006 In February, Haitians voted for a president and parliament to replace the interim government that had held power since 2004. Rene Preval is declared the winner after accusations of election fraud and protests in his favour. He belongs to the L ’ Espwa (The Hope) Party and have wide spread support amongst the poor.
2008 In August and September tropical storms and hurricanes kills hundreds of Haitians. The country ’ s agriculture suffered huge loses In April, rioting broke out in Les Cayes and Port-au-Prince over steeply rising food prices. More political instability followed with replacement of the prime minister twice.
2010 The region ’ s worst earthquake in 200 years struck. HAS THE COUNTRY EVEN HAD AN OPPORTUNITY TO BECOME STABLE?