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 May 10, 1775 – Benedict Arnold & Ethan Allen capture Ft. Ticonderoga  Sept. 1775 – Arnold leads expedition to Quebec through Maine woods  1,100 set.

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Presentation on theme: " May 10, 1775 – Benedict Arnold & Ethan Allen capture Ft. Ticonderoga  Sept. 1775 – Arnold leads expedition to Quebec through Maine woods  1,100 set."— Presentation transcript:

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2  May 10, 1775 – Benedict Arnold & Ethan Allen capture Ft. Ticonderoga  Sept – Arnold leads expedition to Quebec through Maine woods  1,100 set out; 600 survive  Richard Montgomery captures Montreal in Nov  Dec. 31, 1775: attack on Quebec fails  Montgomery killed; Arnold wounded  Siege continued until spring  John Burgoyne arrives with reinforcements in May 1776  Guy Carelton drives Americans out of Canada, but drive to Ft. Ticonderoga stalled by Arnold on Lake Champlain Gen. Guy Carleton Ethan Allen at Ft. Ticonderoga

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4  The plan: divide & conquer New England  Howe would capture New York & move up the Hudson  Carleton/Burgoyne would come down the Champlain valley  32,000 British arrive at Staten Island by mid-August, commanded by General William Howe  Battle of Brooklyn (Aug. 27) was disaster for Americans – only storm allowed escape  Americans driven out of Manhattan & defeated again at White Plains (Oct. 28)

5  Howe chased Washington across the Hudson & occupied New Jersey  Spread troops out across Jersey  Offered amnesty to all who would sign loyalty oath  Looting & raping turned people against them – militia started raids  Washington’s surprise victories at Trenton (Dec. 26) & Princeton (Jan. 3) were morale boosters  Continental Army settled into winter headquarters at Morristown, NJ, but continued raids on British & Hessian foraging parties Gen. Howe Washington Crossing the Delaware

6  Howe sailed to head of Chesapeake Bay  Defeated Washington at Brandywine Creek (Sept. 11, 1777)  Captured Philadelphia Sept. 26, 1777  Defeated Washington again at Germantown (Oct. 4, 1777)  Continental Army spent winter at Valley Forge  3,000 died of disease  Von Steuben trained troops Gen. Washington inspecting the troops at Valley Forge, by Edward Moran

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9  “Gentleman Johnny” Burgoyne moved south through Lake Champlain – Lake George corridor  Recaptured Ft. Ticonderoga July 6, 1777  Philip Schuyler ’s delaying tactics slowed British  Burgoyne forced to surrender army of 7,000 at Saratoga (Oct. 17, 1777)  Benedict Arnold largely responsible for victory, but Horatio Gates got the credit  Arnold drove off British from Ft. Stanwix in August  Arnold led charge at Bemis Heights (Oct. 7, 1777) Gen. John Burgoyne Gen. Benedict Arnold

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11 “In memory of the ‘most brilliant soldier’ of the Continental Army who was desperately wounded on this spot the sally port of BURGOYNE’S GREAT WESTERN REDOUBT 7th October, 1777 winning for his countrymen the decisive battle of the American Revolution and for himself the rank of Major General.”

12  Saratoga convinced France to form alliance with U.S.  Treaty of Amity & Commerce opened trade  Treaty of Alliance promised no separate peace  French army & French fleet joined Americans  Spain & Netherlands later joined war as French allies  British could not commit additional troops to America because now fighting wider war Admiral De Grasse Comte de Rochambeau

13  New strategy: hold New York, but concentrate on more valuable & loyal South  Nathaniel Greene turned it into war of attrition  Daniel Morgan & Francis Marion led Patriot militia  Col. Banastre Tarleton organized Loyalist militia to counter them  Cornwallis turned northward after defeats at King’s Mountain (Oct. 7, 1780) & Cowpens (Jan. 17, 1781), and pyrrhic victory at Guilford Courthouse (March 15, 1781) Daniel Morgan

14  Cornwallis besieged at Yorktown (Aug Oct. 19, 1781)  Lafayette, Washington & Rochambeau surrounded British army  Admiral De Grasse defeated British fleet  Cornwallis forced to surrender Oct. 19, 1781 Marquis de Lafayette Yorktown Victory Monument

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16  Benjamin Franklin, John Adams & John Jay skillfully played French & British off each other  Britain gave generous terms because eager to end unpopular, costly war  Boundaries:  Modern Canadian boundary (but disputed in Maine)  Mississippi River  Boundary of Spanish Florida Treaty of Paris, by Benjamin West, 1783

17  U.S. suffered 25,600 deaths in war  1% of population  65-75% due to disease  1 st national event  Politicized participants  Shedding blood lends power to nationalism  70,000 Loyalists fled to Canada or Great Britain  At least 16% of population  Property confiscated – most never received compensation  50,000 fled to Canada - founded New Brunswick & Ontario Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s Press

18  Egalitarian rhetoric of republicanism clearly at odds with slavery  Over 18,000 slaves (5% of the black population) escaped to British lines or ran away during the war  Both sides used slaves as soldiers  Lord Dunmore (1775) & Gen. Henry Clinton (1779) offered freedom to slaves who enlisted in British army  Several states allowed slaves to serve in place of masters  New York offered freedom to slaves who served 3 years in army (& compensated owners)  Wave of manumission followed Revolution  Northern states began to phase out slavery – ¾ free by 1810; all by 1840  Over 10% of blacks in Upper South free by 1810


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