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The End of Colonialism in Africa Review of Issues Problems Taxation Land Alienation Violence Exploitation Divide and Rule Tactics Laws and regulations.

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Presentation on theme: "The End of Colonialism in Africa Review of Issues Problems Taxation Land Alienation Violence Exploitation Divide and Rule Tactics Laws and regulations."— Presentation transcript:

1 The End of Colonialism in Africa Review of Issues Problems Taxation Land Alienation Violence Exploitation Divide and Rule Tactics Laws and regulations restricting rights of Africans Impact of Education post WWI Increased Nationalism

2 The End of Colonialism in Africa Review of Issues Impact of WWII Military Service Raw materials and war effort Growing gap between rich and poor White Settlers South Africa Smuts and Britain 1948 elections. D.F. Malan Atlantic Charter- Clause Three “We (Britain and US) respect the rights of all peoples to choose the form of government under which they will live; and they wish to see sovereign rights and self-government restored to those who had it forcibly taken from them” Cost of the war and Empire

3 Decolonization in Africa

4 End of Colonialism in North Africa Road to independence in North and Northeast Africa Egypt during the war 1936 agreement British troops left in 1946 Egypt independent- under King Farouk Problems Nationalism Creation of Israel 1948 Arab-Israeli War Corrupt government 1951 declaration – 1936 agreement voided July 23, 1952 Coup Col. Gamal Abdul Nasser General Neguib

5 Egypt

6 Gamal Nasser

7 End of Colonialism in North Africa Egypt and the Sudan British forced to allow elections in Sudan in January 1956 Neguib ousted in 1954, Nasser in complete control Foreign aid Seizure of Suez Canal 1956 Sir Anthony Eden- PM Britain- resigns Problems in Sudan 1958 Military Coup General Abboud Internal divisions Religious, ethnic, geographical “Anyanya”- Snake Poison formed in 1963- Southern Sudanese military- Non Muslim Civil War

8 Sudan

9 Anthony Eden, PM Britain

10 General Abboud

11 End of Colonialism in North Africa The Horn of Africa Ethiopia and WWII Haile Selassie restored in 1942 Pan-African Freedom Movement of East and Central Africa 1962 British Somaliland to Somalia in 1960 Military Coup 1969 General Siad Barre“ 1963 OAU Organization of African Union Eritrea Problems, Independence or Ethiopian province, or complete division Ethiopia win 1952- Eritrea internal independence Muslim Eritrean Liberation Movement Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front

12 H.I.M. Haile Selassie

13 Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia

14 General Siad Barre

15 End of Colonialism in North Africa Libya Independence resulted from WWII Allies- Sayyed Idris of Sansui Brotherhood Italy out 1943- Idris “king of Libya” Officially independent 1951 Oil discovered 1965 Military Coup 1969 Col. Muhamar Gadhafi- 27yrs Morocco 1953- France deposed Sultan Muhammad V- exiled to Corsica and Madagascar War vs. Army of Liberation Muhammad V returns 1955 Independence granted 1956 Issue with Rio de Oro and Mauritania - Polisario and partition 1979

16 Muhamar Gadhafi

17 Morocco, Western Sahara

18 End of Colonialism in North Africa Tunisia Independent 1962 after ten year long war between France and nationalist under Habib Bourgiba’s nationalist Neo-Destour Party France still influential Algeria- Nasty struggle Muslims vs. Settlers in Setif Impact of Indo-China 1945-1953 October 1954- Algerian nationalist form National Liberation Front (FLN) Revolt launched 1 November 1954, lasts 8 years heavy cost in lives De Gaulle and FLN made a deal in 1962 independence granted Civil War- Muhammad Ben Bella Coup 1965 under Col. Boumedienne

19 Algeria and Tunisia

20 End of Colonialism in Sub-Saharan Africa Pan-African movement W.E.B. Dubois Marcus Garvey Kwame Nkrumah and the Gold Coast 1935-1945 Lincoln University in Pennsylvania 1945- Manchester- Fifth Pan-African Congress Jomo Kenyatta- Kenya Leopold Senghor- Senegal Felix Houphouet-Boigny- Cote d’Ivoire PAC Resolution “We are determined to be free. We want education. We want the right to earn a decent living, the right to express our thoughts and emotions, to adopt and create forms of beauty. We demand for Black Africa autonomy and independence. We will fight in every way we can for freedom, democracy and social betterment.”

21 Marcus Garvey

22 Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana

23 Jomo Kenyatta, Leopold Senghor, Felix Houphouet-Boigny

24 Ghana

25 End of Colonialism in Sub-Saharan Africa- Ghana The United Gold Coast Convention 1947 issue- 1946 Constitution and African representation in LegCo Elected vs. appointed Accra riots February 1948 response and spread Nkrumah arrested Forms the radical Convention People’s Party (CPP) upon release several months later 1951 elections and results Negotiations with Gov. Arden-Clarke 1954 Elections Nkrumah is PM- Gold Coast has internal self-rule 1957 Ghana is independent with Nkrumah as head of state Problems National Liberation Movement (NLM)- Asante peoples

26 End of Colonialism in Sub-Saharan Africa Nigeria Problems ethnic, religious divisions North vs. South National Congress of Nigeria and Cameroons- formed 1944 Nnamdi Azikiwe Yoruba Action Group (YAG) Formed 1949 Northern Peoples Congress (NPC)- largely Fulani/Hausa formed 1949 Which Direction? 1. one state 2. 2-3 states 3. Federal system Independence October 1960- under Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Tensions grow Sierra Leone – 1961 Gambia- 1965- issue of Senegal

27 Nigeria

28 Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa

29 Sierra Leone, Gambia, Senegal

30 Independence in French West Africa French Assimilation 1946 Reforms Felix Houphouet-Boigny- Cote d’Ivoire Senegal Leopold Senghor Bloc Democratique Senegalais 1948 1951 elections French and African relations internal self-rule rule 1956 Federalism vs. nationalism De Gaulle in power 1958 the “yes” or “no” to the referendum

31 Cote d’Ivoire

32 Felix Houphouet-Boigny

33 Sierra Leone, Gambia, Senegal

34 Leopold Senghor of Senegal

35 French West Africa and British East Africa Guinea Sekou Toure led Guinea to vote no in1958 and becomes First French colony To attain independence By 1960- The year of independence from France 13 French West African Colonies get independence Independence in British East Africa Tanganyika- Mandate to protectorate Nationalism 1951 Meru protest Tanganyikan African Association (TAA) Julius Nyerere forms Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) 1954 Uses Kiswahili = power and unity Multi-racial constitution 1956

36 Guinea- Sekou Toure

37 Tanganyika

38 Julius Nyerere

39 British East Africa TANU and 1958 elections Tanganyika Independence 1961 under Julius Nyerere and TANU Zanzibar – Independence December 1963 under the Sultan of Zanzibar Sultan overthrown a few weeks later April 1964- Tanganyika and Zanzibar unite into Republic of Tanzania Independence for Uganda Buganda and Uganda- the Legacy of “Indirect Rule” The role of the Kabaka Kabaka Mutesa II 1961 Independence- the strange place of Buganda and role of Kabaka Political divisions Kabaka Yekka (King Alone) vs. Uganda People’s Congress- Milton Obote- PM 1962

40 Uganda

41 Kabaka Mutesa II

42 Milton Obote

43 British East Africa Uganda April 1966- Obote’s Constitution May 1966- the storming of the Kabaka’s palace Kabaka Mutesa II in exile Col. Idi Amin January 1971, Coup, Amin in power Civil war

44 Idi Amin


46 Decolonization in Kenya Devonshire White Paper 1923 Harry Thuku appointed to LegCO in late 1940s Mau Mau Rebellion Roots: Kikuyu, Embu, Meru squatters in White Highlands Ejected from farms in late 1930s Overcrowding reserves joblessness in Nairobi Mau Mau started in early 1940s taking of Oaths KAU and Kenyatta’s response Gov. Philip Mitchell Kenyatta finally denounced Mau Mau in August 1952 at speech in Kiambu

47 Mau Mau in Kenya

48 Mau Mau fighters

49 Gov. Sir Philip Mitchell

50 Mau Mau Detainees


52 Kenya Violence erupts in 1952 and got worse focused on Central Province, Rift Valley and Nairobi Mitchell retire early 1952, replaced by Sir Evelyn Baring The assassination of Chief Waruhiu Violence against Europeans increased Baring declared “State of Emergency” in October 1952 Kenyatta arrested on October 20,1952- sent to prison camp in NFD Land Freedom Army (LFA) picked up arms and moved to the Aberdare Mountains and Mau Forest Major General Erskine commander of the repressive military containment

53 Gov. Sir Evelyn Baring

54 General Erskine

55 Kenya Scapegoats: Kenyatta and KAU April 1953,Kenyatta and 8 KAU leaders tried for inciting Mau Mau and found guilty “Operation Anvil”- April 1954 Mau Mau fizzles out late 1955-early 1956 Dedan Kimathi Waruhiu Itote: aka “General China” Stanley Mathenge Emergency lifted 1959 Impact of Mau Mau 20 million pounds used to crash the rebellion 500+ African KAR and Police, 63 British Soldiers, 3 Indians- slightly more wounded Mau Mau supporters-10,500 killed, 5,000 captured or surrendered, 126,000 arrested and/or detained (mostly Kikuyu from Nairobi Area) Deaths -Civilians: 2700 killed or wounded African (some estimates as high as 50,000), 60 Asians, 60 Europeans

56 Dedan Kimathi

57 Waruhiu Itote aka. “General China”

58 Kenya Alan Lennox-Boyd replaced as Colonial Secretary in 1959 by Iain McLeod Changes PM Harold Macmillian (1957-1963) Made the “Wind of Change” speech, 3 February 1960 to SA Parliament “The wind of change is blowing through this continent. Whether we like it or not, this growth of national consciousness is a political fact.” Lancaster House Meetings 1960, 1962, 1963 Kenyan African Political Parties in 1960s KANU (Kenya African National Union)- Kenyatta – Kikuyu, Embu, Meru KADU (Kenya African Democratic Union)- Oginga Odinga, Tom Mboya Kenyatta released in 1961 12 December 1963- Kenya independent. Kenyatta Pres. Many problems

59 PM Harold Macmillian

60 Jomo Kenyatta

61 Oginga Odinga

62 Tom Mboya

63 Kenyatta and Mboya

64 Mboya Speech 1963?

65 Belgian Congo Legacy of Belgian rule No African Political parties until 1957 No African Newspapers until 1957 Elections 1957-1958 MNC- Congo National Movement Patrice Lumumba 1959 rallies to riots May 1960 elections 120 parties, 137 seats Federalism vs. Centralization Lumumba as PM and collapse of government- Katanga independence, UN

66 The Belgian Congo

67 Patrice Lumumba

68 Congo, Rwanda and Burundi The Assassination of Lumumba- November 1960-Jaunuary 1961 Who? CIA General Mobutu- November 1965- Mobutu’s bloodless Coup Rwanda and Burundi Hutu vs Tutsi aristocracy in colonial period Hutu response to Rwandan independence in 1962 Burundi- Tutsi remain in power even after independence in 1962

69 General Mobutu Sese Seko

70 Rwanda and Burundi

71 Decolonization in British Central Africa: Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyaasaland Independence in British Central Africa Nyassaland (Malawi) Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Impact of white settlers Big issue in Southern Rhodesia 150,000 in 1950 200,000 in 1960 Federation question- starts in 1940s White domination African protests: Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda and Harry Nkumbula Federation granted in 1953

72 British Central Africa

73 Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda

74 Harry Nkumbula

75 British central Africa Impact of Federation Whites Africans African response to Federation: Miners’ strike in 1956 Southern Rhodesia and Kariba Dam 30,000 Africans displaced New round of protests NRANC (Northern Rhodesia African National Congress)- Nkumbula NAC (Nyasaland African Congress)

76 British Central Africa New Political Parties developed ZANC (Zambia African National Congress)- Banned in 1959 ZAPU (Zimbabwe African People’s Union)- formed early 1960s by Joshua Nkomo Macmillian and “Winds of Change Speech” Federation broke 1963 Zambia and Malawi gain independence in 1964 African majority w/ very small white minority The case in Southern Rhodesia: Zimbabwe White domination continues ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) formed in 1963 Ndabaningi Sithole and Robert Mugabe Ian Smith (Rhodesia Front Party) UDI in November 1965 ZANU commits to armed resistance- civil war breaks out

77 Joshua Nkomo, founder of ZAPU

78 Ndabaningi Sithole

79 Dr.Robert Mugabe

80 Ian Smith, PM Southern Rhodesia

81 British Central Africa First clash in Southern Rhodesia- April 1966 Trains with FRELIMO 1971-1972, 1974-1975 Mugabe takes control of ZANU 1975 Soviet backed ZAPU invades in 1977 Smith regime’s response- attack ZANU and ZAPU bases in Mozambique 1978 compromise- Bishop Abel Muzorewa- Zimbabwe-Rhodesia Rejected by ZANU and ZAPU December 1979- London agreement Elections to be held in February 1980 Mugabe and ZANU win- Zimbabwe gains Independence under African majority rule with Mugabe as President

82 Independence in Portuguese Africa Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique Lead taken by Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde PAIGC (Party for African Independence in Guinea and Cape Verde) Formed 1956 by Cape Verdean Nationalist, Amilcar Cabral 1959 dockworkers strikes and harsh crackdown = 50 Africans killed, and spread of protest Cabral decides on war War begin 1963 that lasted 10 years September 1973 PAIGC declares independent state on mainland Cabral assassinated January 1974 by Portuguese fear of being a communist Portugal pulls out in September 1974 Why? General Spinola- Military Coup April 1974, didn’t want colonies – need to consolidate his power

83 Guinea-Bissau

84 Amilcar Cabral

85 Portuguese Africa Angola MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) Formed December 1956 by Agostino Neto 1961 revolt erupts in Luanda and major cities Revolt spreads to northern Angola FNLA (National Liberation Front of Angola)- Holden Roberto War continues until 1975 when independence is won Big problem in Angola was the intervention of foreign states and Cold War politics That forced Cuba to rescue Angola

86 Angola

87 Agostino Neto

88 Holden Roberto

89 Portuguese Africa Foreign intervention in Angola MPLA did most of fighting – Soviets support FNLA – based in Zaire – Little fighting until war near end - Backed by US and Mobutu in Zaire When war was almost over, FNLA attacks MPLA Enter UNITA (United National party for the Total Independence of Angola) Jonas Savimbi – based in eastern Angola – attack MPLA as well backed by South Africa – Namibia (Southwest Africa) 1974 – UNITA forms anti-MPLA pact with the Portuguese Portuguese pull out troops in 1975 and civil war erupts

90 Jonas Savimbi

91 Portuguese Africa Angola- MPLA controlled capital and most rural districts received small shipment of arms from Guinea-Bissau – early 1975 Independence set for November 1975 South Africa makes a move – invades from Namibia and pushes to Luanda At same time, US backed FNLA invades from north supported by troops from Zaire, Portugal and mercenaries Neto and MPLA declare independence 13,000 Soviet equipped Cuban soldiers arrieve to help restore order South Africans and FNLA expelled by early 1976 after thrashing by Cuban forces UNITA retreated to remote hills of southeastern Angola and continued to fight until 1980s, supported by US money and periodic South African invasions

92 Portuguese Africa Mozambique- unified nationalists movements in 1962 FRELIMO (Front for the Liberation of Mozambique) – - founded in Dar-es-Salaam September 1964 – FRELIMO leaders declare war on Portugal Eduardo Mondlane and Samora Machel Socialist agenda February 1969 – Mondlane assassinated Machel takes total control fights FRELIMO wins independence in 1975

93 Eduardo Mondlane (L) and Samora Machel (R)

94 South Africa and Apartheid 1910 Act of Union South Africa has internal self-rule w/ British monarch as nominal head of state Lasts from 1910 to 1961 (hence loyalty of Botha-Smuts governments during both world wars) 1910 to 1936 – only very small number of Africans have the right to vote only in Cape Province and parts of Natal Province 1936 – Law passed – no voting rights for any Africans (despite reservation made by Smuts) – Hard-line, conservative Afrikaners in SA Parliament gain support Whites retain all power is SA Gold, Diamonds, manufacturing, self-sufficient Post-WWII and National Party – politics of fear – “Black domination”

95 South Africa

96 South Africa and Apartheid 1948 Elections National Party – 70 seats Union Party – 65 seats D.F. Malan and political alliance with conservative Afrikaner parties = total control Apartheid implemented Four parts to Apartheid 1. Four races in SA: White, Black, Colored, Indian 2. Whites only “civilized” race and had complete political power over others 3. White interests were always put before African interests 4. All whites, European or Afrikaner, were considered “white” Africans divided into nine groups Xhosa, Tswana, Zulu, South Sotho, North Sotho, Venda, Swazi, Tsonga, Ndebele Indians considered aliens in SA

97 D.F. Malan

98 South Africa and Apartheid Three Phases of Apartheid - Phase One: started in 1948 with the NP election victory and ended in 1959 when the government introduced separate development and self government for the African reserves…….This is the classical, or BAASSKAAP (White supremacy) phase, during which apartheid ideology became law –Phase Two: Lasted from 1960 until the early 1970s, and witnessed the implementation of separate development. This period was the high point of the Apartheid state and Afrikaner nationalism…During this phase as well, anti- apartheid organizations adopted violent means for affecting change –Phase Three: Mid 1970s to 1994. This phase witnessed a shift away from complete racial segregation, the granting of limited political rights to coloreds and Indians, and a relaxation of the color bar in business and industry…..After the mid 1970s, anti-apartheid groups both inside and outside the country put increasing economic and political pressure on the government to change…..Apartheid came to an end, officially, with Nelson Mandela’s election as South African president in 1994

99 South Africa Apartheid Legislation Most hated: Bantu Education Act (1953) ANC (African National Congress founded c. 1912) Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu “Defiance Campaign” 1952 Crackdown- Most leaders arrested January 1953 “Congress Alliance” 1955 – “Freedom Charter” “SA belongs to all who live in it, Black and White, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of the people” Government response – planted “communist document” - 156 arrested and tried for treason None guilty Pan African-Congress (PAC) – formed 1959 – Robert Sobukwe

100 Nelson Mandela

101 Oliver Tambo

102 Walter Sisulu

103 South Africa February 1960 – Harold Macmillian – “Winds of Change Speech” March 1960 – Protests ANC (31 st ) vs. PAC (21 st ) – Sobukwe arrested with hundreds of others Sharpeville massacre 69 killed – 180 wounded World condemnation SA govt cracks down harder ANC and PAC – illegal under Unlawful Organizations Act 1960 Public meetings banned 18,000 arrested – 6,500 remained detained and placed on trial Sobukwe jailed 3 years on Robben Island “Umkhonto we Sizwe” (Spear of the Nation) – founded 1960 – Mandela, Tambo, Sisulu First act of violence- 16 December 1961 Leadership Arrested 1962-1963, trials 1963-1964

104 South Africa Mandela’s Speech “During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.” PM Hendrick Verwoerd (PM 1958-1966) “The Brains of Apartheid” June 12, 1964, 8 Umkhonto leaders found guilty of sabotage –Included: Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Elias Motoaledi, Andrew Mlangeni, Ahmed Kathrada and Dennis Goldberg All but Goldberg went to Robben Island The men’s defense attorney, Bram Fischer, was later sentenced to life in prison for belonging to the South African Communist Party

105 Dr. Henrick Verwoerd, PM 1958- 1966

106 South Africa During this mess, SA Parliament passed Bantu-Self Government Act (1959) African independence in 1960 (Congo) Verwoerd calls for vote on separate development 90% of all whites voted 52% supported the idea Commonwealth’s Prime Minister’s Conference – March 1961 – Verwoerd asks for Republic – complaints – denied May 31,1961 – Verwoerd announced the existence of Republic of South Africa The Turbulent 1970s Bantu Homelands Constitution Act 1971 Government control of everything Steve Biko and Black Consciousness Movement South African Student Organization (SASO) formed 1969

107 Steve Biko

108 South Africa Steve Biko – Black Peoples Convention 1972 May 1976 – Archbishop Desmond Tutu warns PM John Vorster Soweto uprisings June 16,1976 – 15,000 students of Orlando West Junior Secondary School Issue: Languages in school instruction 2 killed and demonstration spreads By years end – 575 dead, 2,389 wounded – thousands more arrested 18 August 1977 – Biko arrested under Terrorism Act Died 12 September 1977 pushed to fall from 24 th floor Donald Woods

109 Archbishop Desmond Tutu

110 PM John Vorster

111 Soweto Uprisings

112 South Africa Changes made to tactics of ANC – bombing campaigns SA Defense Minister P.W. Botha – militarization Botha’s “Total Strategy” “Win the trust and faith of Africans” – “Hearts and Minds?” Relaxing of Apartheid legislation - “decolonization” scheduled Vorester resigns 1978 – P.W. Botha is PM 1979- National press Club meeting in DC, Piet Koornhof – “apartheid is dying” 1983 – Botha announces new Constitution – 3 separate Parliaments House of Assembly for Whites (178 members) House of Reps for Colored (85 members) – August 1984 House of Delgates for Indians (45 members) – Sept 1984 UDF – United Democratic Front – boycott elections

113 P.W. Botha

114 South Africa The end of Apartheid September 3,1984 Sharpeville again Necklacing “Comrades” the world responds Order restored by 1987 43 dead, 263 hospitalized Repeal of Apartheid legislationMost repealed by June 1990 Botha has stroke January 1989 Replaced by F.W. de Klerk Mandela released 11 February 1990 President 10 May,1994

115 F.W. de Klerk

116 Africa 1980-2000 Angola Jonas Savimbi (UNITA) continued his war against the MPLA through 1980-2002 when he was assassinated Cease fire signed shortly after 3 million dead and a little more than 3 million displaced The Horn of Africa September 1974 – Halie Selassie of Ethiopia was deposed The Derg - Soviet Backed Military government replaced him Cuban Troops Derg led by Mengistu Halie Mariam – ruled 1974 to 1991 End of Cold war meant end of Soviet support for Mengistu

117 Jonas Savimbi

118 Post independence Political Challenges in Africa 1980-2000 Angola Jonas Savimbi (UNITA) continued his war against the MPLA through 1980-2002 when he was assassinated Cease fire signed shortly after 3 million dead and a little more than 3 million displaced The Horn of Africa September 1974 – Halie Selassie of Ethiopia was deposed The Derg - Soviet Backed Military government replaced him Cuban Troops Derg led by Mengistu Halie Mariam – ruled 1974 to 1991 End of Cold war meant end of Soviet support for Mengistu

119 Ethiopia

120 Mengistu Mariam

121 Africa 1980-2000 Mengistu in Ethiopia rise of Eritrean nationalism and Tigre nationalism Mengistu fled to Zimbabwe in 1991 replaced by Meles Zenawi (Tigrean nationalist leader) 1993 – Zenawi recognizes Eritrean independence 1998 – Ethiopian-Eritrean war starts war is over by end of 1998 30,000 dead

122 Meles Zenawi

123 Africa 1980-2000 Somalia begins to tear itself apart in 1980s Siad Barre loses control When Mengistu fled Ethiopia in 1991, Barre leaves Somalia for Kenya in 1992 Rise of Warlords in Somalia Old British Somaliland (north) break away and forms Somaliland - under the leadership of Muhamed Egal 1992 – serious drought hit Somalia UN sends relief Warlords confiscate relief December 1992 – First US troops arrive in Mogadishu

124 Somalia

125 Muhamed Egal

126 Africa 1980-2000 Somalia Mogadishu President Bill Clinton “Black Hawk Down” American troops pulled out by end of 1994 Total cost of UN Mission – 1.6 Billion Results – Nothing but pirates - America reluctant to get involved in Africa again in Rwanda, Burundi and the Congo 1990-2000 Tutsi vs. Hutus – Rwanda and Burundi Following independence – Hutus chased Tutsis out of Rwanda to Uganda In Burundi – struggle for control, Tutsi aristocracy remained In 1988 – Tutsi government of Burundi begins killing educated Hutus – threat War continued to 1993- thousands of Hutu fled to Rwanda, Tanzania and Zaire

127 Somalia

128 Rwanda

129 Africa 1980-2000 Rwanda Hutu controlled government faced war against Tutsi rebels since late 1980s Based in Uganda Led by General Paul Kagame Fought against Milton Obote’s govt in Uganda since 1979 Formed the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) in 1985 Fight Hutu government of Rwanda under Juvenal Habyariman April 6,1994 – President Habyariman of Rwanda and President Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi were killed when their plane was shot down while landing in Kigali airport Who did it? 1. RPF 2. Hutu Military commanders 3. nobody knows

130 General Paul Kagame

131 Juvenal Habyariman of Rwanda

132 Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi

133 Africa 1980-2000 Upon the deaths of 2 presidents, Hutu militia, backed by Hutu dominated Rwandan military started an anti-Tutsi campaign Rwanda Free Radio & TV of the Thousand Hills Rise up and kill the Tutsi cockroaches Interahamwe =More than 800,000 killed over 100 day period between April and July 1994 What could have been done to stop or limit the violence? UN Commander – General Romeo Dallaire (Canada) Asked for more troops and change to rules of engagement early April “Peacekeepers” vs. “Peacemakers” “Shake Hands with the Devil” Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary General of UN 1992-1997, does nothing

134 General Romeo Dallaire

135 Boutros Boutros-Ghali, UN Sec. General 1992-1997

136 Africa 1980-2000 Clinton Administration Nothing done – does not use the term genocide until end of May 1994, and never when referring to what was happening in Rwanda - only gave definition of “genocide” US Ambassador to UN – Madeleine Albright- did nothing She actually led efforts to convince the world that what was happening in Rwanda was NOT genocide and worked against greater UN involvement Later Said to PBS Documentary crew: “it was a very, very difficult time, and the situation was unclear. You know, in retrospect, it all looks very clear. But when you were [there] at the time, it was unclear about what was happening in Rwanda ” – Ghosts of Rwanda – April 2004

137 US Ambassador to UN, and Later Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright

138 Africa 1980-2000 Albright did not admit it was genocide until after she became Secretary of State Thousands of Tutsi forced to flee Rwanda RPF advance ended the killings, July 1994 – Kagame enters Kigali 1-2 million Hutus fled the RPF advance and were pushed by Hutu Military and “Interahamwe”-militia into Kivu province of Zaire Problems for Hutu refugees By July 1994 – 1/3 of 7.5 million Rwandans were still alive and living in Rwanda UN aid begins to arrive in September 1994 Kagame government and Hutus

139 Rwanda

140 Africa 1980-2000 Impact of Rwanda on Zaire - Mobutu’s government in decline Problems - Rwandan refugees - Sudanese warlords - Zairean warlord- Laurent Kabila - resurge of insurgency started in 1964 In 1997, Kabila pushed hard towards Kinshasa - reached Kinshasa in May 1997 - help of Ugandan, Rwandan, Burundian and Angolan troops Mobutu fled to Togo then Morocco where he died a few weeks later

141 Zaire – Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

142 Mobutu

143 Laurent Kabila

144 Africa 1980-2000 Kabila declares Zaire’s got a new name: Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Problems for Kabila - Not a capable leader - very corrupt - not charismatic as Mobutu Turned his back on his supporters In 1999, Rwanda and Uganda support an insurgency against Kabila - Eastern provinces fall quickly - Kabila turns to Angola, Zimbabwe and Namibia for help – they all send troops - Kabila also got help from Sudan and Chad – not much Basically there were six nations that had armies in DRC

145 Africa 1980-2000 The Congolese Civil War 1999-2011 - raping, pillaging, plundering in the DRC - Laurent Kabila shot and killed by his bodyguard in early 2001 -Replaced by his 29 year old son, Joseph Kabila Joseph Kabila is nothing like his father Overhauled government World Banks gives loan - $400 Million to stabilize DRC UN and SA (Thabo Mbeki) try to get resolution and end conflict Uganda pulls out April 2003 - Lendu and Hema begin fighting - French force sent in to maintain peace Estimated that 4.7 million died in Congolese Civil War – most since WWII

146 Joseph Kabila

147 South African President Thabo Mbeki

148 UN Secretary General Kofi Annan


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