Presentation on theme: "English Reformation Tudor England. I.Tudor England a. Tudor line of Succession a. Henry VII (1485-1509) b. Henry VIII (1509-1547) c. Edward VI (1547-1553)"— Presentation transcript:
I.Tudor England a. Tudor line of Succession a. Henry VII (1485-1509) b. Henry VIII (1509-1547) c. Edward VI (1547-1553) d. Mary I (1553-1558) e. Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
b. Henry VII -Brought peace to England after they were involved in wars 100 years war against the French English Civil War known as the War of the Roses (York’s v Lancaster’s) -Lower and middle class supported Henry VII Lancaster York -Saved $ and gave it to son when he would become king Tudor
c. Arranged marriage -Henry VII ’ s oldest son, Arthur married Catherine of Aragon (Ferdinand and Isabelle ’ s daughter). -But Arthur died -Henry VIII was now the next to take over and was pressured by father ’ s executors to marry Catherine of Aragon (his dead brother ’ s wife) They needed to cement the Spain-England alliance & the contract was already signed. -Church law forbade this but Henry VII asked the Pope and he granted it.
d. Henry VIII -Took over the monarchy when he was 18 years old and married Catherine of Aragon whom was 5 years older then him. -Henry VIII was a Renaissance Man: Well-rounded; played tennis, writer, student, hunter, dancer, music (lute), songs, astronomy — used to wake up his friend Sir Thomas More to watch the stars. -Also big on religion, wrote an article attacking Martin Luther — A defense of the Seven Sacraments.
e. Problem with the Marriage Catherine and Henry were married for 10 years before problems arose 1.The alliance between Spain and England became less popular. 2. Henry wanted a male heir (successor) At this time a women didn’t rule alone. They did have six children but only one lived & that was Mary. They were not even sure if she was going to survive.
f. Anne Boleyn Henry was having an affair w/ Anne Boleyn (20 years old) She wanted to be Queen. If Henry had a son while not being married to, the mother then that would not count for a successor. Henry needed to get a divorce. g. Henry needs a way out: Divorce Henry was in his 30’s and Catherine was in her 40’s. Henry was haunted by a line in the Bible that stated; if you marry your dead brother’s wife you would die childless. The Pope, Clement VII, delayed the decision (wanted to say no but was buying time).
Pope did this because: a. Martin Luther was a bigger concern. b. Catherine of Aragon was the aunt of Charles V the HRE. Pope delays the final decision and Henry grows impatient. h. Forcing the Pope’s decision Henry wanted the Pope to declare the marriage annulled and that would make Mary illegitimate 1.Laws passed allowing Henry to cut taxes owed to Rome if Pope did not grant the divorce 2. Archbishop died & Henry named a new one (Thomas Cranmer) & he grants the divorce. 3. Fined the English Clergy unless they recognized them as the head of the Church of England.
i. New Marriage People opposed to this, because they liked Catherine. Henry married Anne in May of 1533 and she gives birth in September of 1533. Problem---it was another girl, Elizabeth People like Thomas More are killed for opposing marriage Pope excommunicated Henry VIII
J. Revenge by Henry Passed laws: 1. Made his divorce legal 2. Closed monasteries and took church lands and sold them 3. Act of Supremacy—New Church of England (Anglican Church) In order to get a government job you had to accept the marriage, which in turn accepted Henry as the head of the church New Church of England was the same as the previous Catholic Church. Except: Church service and Bible were now in English. The King was now the head of the Church not the Pope.
k. Did Henry VIII ever get that boy? 1534, Act of Succession was passed and it stated that all children under Anne would be the next monarchs. This made Mary illegitimate. 1. Catherine of Aragon Catherine of Aragon gave birth to six children. Only Mary lived. Later, Mary became known as Mary I. Henry VIII Six Wives
2. Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn gave birth to Elizabeth, later known as Elizabeth I. She was accused of adultery (not true) and beheaded. Back
3. Jane Seymour Jane Seymour gave birth to Edward (very sickly), later known as Edward VI. Jane died in child birth. Back
4. Anne of Cleves Was supposed to create an alliance with Germany Shown a portrait that was inaccurate Divorced her right away because she was ugly Given land & $ to leave the marriage Back
5. Katherine Howard Katherine Howard was accused of cheating on Henry VIII and was put to beheaded. She had no children. Back
6. Katherine Paar Katherine Paar was Henry's last wife. Katherine outlived Henry. She was more of a nurse than a wife. She was in love with Thomas Seymour. Back
II. The Rest of the Tudors a. Edward VI Took over when he was around 9 years old. (16 Regency Rule, the top one being Jane Seymour’s brother, the Duke of Summerset (Edward Seymour) Under his reign the Church of England becomes more Protestant (the Book of Common Prayer) Economy falls Dies 6 years later of TB, and he had no kids.
b. Mary I People cheered when Mary came to the throne, she thought it was because she was Catholic ---but it was because she was a Tudor. Devout Catholic and tries to change the Church back. People did not want that. She tortured and burned about 300 Protestants at the stake & earned the nickname of Bloody Mary. Died of Cancer leaving her half-sister Elizabeth to take over the throne. During her reign, many people fled England She wanted to repeal the Act of Supremacy and have church lands returned. She was married to Philip II of Spain.
c. Elizabeth I (1533-1603) 1. Introduction Most outstanding monarch in English history 45 year reign and was the last Tudor. Renaissance supporter and was very self-confident 2. Problems when she takes over 25 years old when she takes over War with France and conflict with Scotland Religious divisions (in the eyes of the church she was illegitimate) and economy was bad.
d. Religion -Stayed out of religious conflicts. During her 45 years, it let the Protestants establish a church. Did not persecute Catholics. -Mary Queen of Scots was forced out of Scotland and went to England She was Catholic and everyone knew that since Elizabeth did not have a child Mary Queen of Scots was the next in line. People did not want to go back to being Catholic. Queen found out she was plotting to kill her and Elizabeth had her executed in 1587.
4. Foreign Policy -Ends the war with France and makes peace with Scotland -Spanish problem Catholic country v. Protestant country Spanish Armada- Great Navy, set sail in 1588 Sailed in a V formation & met up with Sir Francis Drake (2nd in command). English did not lose a ship. England now #1 Navy in world and increased pride in England. Philip II was the king of Spain.
5. Culture Literary development (more then music or paintings) Shakespeare Explorers>> Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh 6. No Heir to the Throne Never married, no children Lived until the age of 70 and on her death be named King James VI of Scotland as her successor (son of Mary Queen of Scots)
7. Accomplishments a. Smooth over Catholic and Protestants and kept the country united. b. 45 year reign, Golden Age of one of world’s great nations c. During Reign, England emerged as world power
III. Stuart England a. Stuart Family 1. James I (1603-1625) also James VI of Scotland 2. Charles I (1625-1649) beheaded Interregnum (1649-1660) period between Monarchs 3. Charles II (1660-1685) 4. James II (1685-1688) Charles’s brother Glorious or Bloodless Revolution cast off James II to France 5. William and Mary (1688-1702) 6. Anne (1702-1714)
b. People hate the Stuarts and it leads to a Civil War Religion: Puritans did not like him and they fled to America Came out with the King James Bible Believed in Divine Right People could not trust him because he was a foreigner At this time, Parliament only met if king called one. James tried to rule without calling one. This led to big money problems. 1. James I 2. Charles I Needed $, a document waiting in exchange for the money called the: Petition of Rights- 1628 No taxation without consent of Parliament No imprisonment w /out a trial No quartering of troops
Signed the document to get the money but breaks it & started to tax & ignored other provisions. Charles I then dissolved the Parliament and rules for 11 years with out calling one. Led to a Civil War At first, Charles troops (Cavilers) winning (more organized) but then Parliament (Roundheads) wins Charles fled and was later caught (surrendered to the Scottish Army) and was executed by beheading.
C. Interregnum (1649-1660) period between Monarchs The leader of England during this time was on of the leaders of the Civil War, Oliver Cromwell The government was not called a monarchy but a Commonwealth Cromwell was not called a king but the Lord Protector He acted more like a dictator. They was more tradition with a Monarch & the people wanted to return. Shortly after Cromwell’s death Parliament met in 1660 and instead of Cromwell’s son taking over they invited Charles I’s son, Charles II (the exiled Stuart) to be king. Charles II takes over and he is very careful not to fall into the problems that the previous Stuarts had.
d. James II, Charles’s brother takes over after his death Apparently did not learn from his brother’s example and insisted that the King had power to overrule any law of Parliament. He lost the support of many people & even his daughter Mary II. e. Glorious or Bloodless Revolution People now did not want a king who felt that he was above the law. Parliament invited William of Orange (husband of Mary II) to come with an army to protect England from their own king. James II had fled and was making his way down the Thames River when caught.
f. New Monarchy Mary II was next in line for the throne but she would only accept it if her husband, William of Orange, was made king. Parliament passed the Bill of Rights. It was a law that limited the royal power. The government would become a Constitutional Monarchy. Bill of Rights: Monarchs could not suspend laws passed by Parliament Free election Trial by jury William and Mary, in order to be accepted, had to accept the Bill of Rights Leads to the Parliaments having more power and the kings having less to the point where the monarchy will just be a symbol.
IV. Agricultural & Industrial Revolution a. What was it? The revolutions were new methods of farming and raising cattle. There was new machinery to produce more food and fewer people needed to get a particular job done. The Agricultural Revolution freed workers to go to industry (which opened the door to the Industrial Revolution). b. Where did it begin? England c. Why England? 1. Natural Resources (iron, coal, wool, cotton) 2. A lot of labor (workers) 3. Stable government which supported change and a growing society 4. Unity of people 5. Strong market (had colonies) 6. Good transportation system (canals and roads)
d. It started in England, why not other countries? France- Internal problems, still based on Agricultural Did not have the same raw materials Germany- were not united Italy – Weren’t united e. Impact of the Revolution on England Increased the population 10mil-30mil---1850 Urbanized New Classes f. Negative effects of the Revolution Long hours (12-14 hr days) Low pay Dangerous working conditions Child labor (illiteracy) Exploitation of Women Slums Lighting bad, no health regulations