2 I. Tudor England a. Tudor line of Succession a. Henry VII (1485-1509) b. Henry VIII ( )c. Edward VI ( )d. Mary I ( )e. Elizabeth I ( )
3 b. Henry VII-Brought peace to England after they were involved in wars100 years war against the FrenchEnglish Civil War known as the War of the Roses(York’s v Lancaster’s)YorkTudorLancaster-Lower and middle class supported Henry VII-Saved $ and gave it to son when he would become king
4 c. Arranged marriage -Henry VII’s oldest son, Arthur married Catherine of Aragon (Ferdinand and Isabelle’s daughter).-But Arthur died-Henry VIII was now the next to take over and waspressured by father’s executors to marry Catherine ofAragon (his dead brother’s wife) They needed to cementthe Spain-England alliance & the contract was alreadysigned.-Church law forbade this but Henry VII asked the Popeand he granted it.
5 d. Henry VIII -Took over the monarchy when he was 18 years old and married Catherine of Aragon whom was 5years older then him.-Henry VIII was a Renaissance Man: Well-rounded; played tennis, writer, student, hunter, dancer, music (lute), songs, astronomy—used to wake up his friend Sir Thomas More to watch the stars.-Also big on religion, wrote an article attacking Martin Luther—A defense of the Seven Sacraments.
6 e. Problem with the Marriage Catherine and Henry were married for 10 years before problems aroseThe alliance between Spain and England became less popular.2. Henry wanted a male heir (successor)At this time a women didn’t rule alone.They did have six children but only one lived & that was Mary.They were not even sure if she was going to survive.
7 g. Henry needs a way out: Divorce f. Anne BoleynHenry was having an affair w/ Anne Boleyn (20 years old)She wanted to be Queen.If Henry had a son while not being married to, the mother then that would not count for a successor. Henry needed to get a divorce.g. Henry needs a way out: DivorceHenry was in his 30’s and Catherine was in her 40’s. Henry was haunted by a line in the Bible that stated; if you marry your dead brother’s wife you would die childless.The Pope, Clement VII, delayed the decision (wanted to say no but was buying time).
8 h. Forcing the Pope’s decision Pope did this because:a. Martin Luther was a bigger concern.b. Catherine of Aragon was the aunt of Charles V the HRE.Pope delays the final decision and Henry grows impatient.h. Forcing the Pope’s decisionHenry wanted the Pope to declare the marriage annulled and that would make Mary illegitimateLaws passed allowing Henry to cut taxes owed toRome if Pope did not grant the divorce2. Archbishop died & Henry named a new one (Thomas Cranmer) & he grants the divorce.3. Fined the English Clergy unless they recognizedthem as the head of the Church of England.
9 i. New MarriagePeople opposed to this, because they liked Catherine. Henry married Anne in May of 1533 and she gives birth in September of 1533.Problem---it was another girl, ElizabethPeople like Thomas More are killed for opposing marriagePope excommunicated Henry VIII
10 J. Revenge by Henry Passed laws: 1. Made his divorce legal 2. Closed monasteries and took church lands and sold them3. Act of Supremacy—New Church of England (Anglican Church)In order to get a government job you had to accept the marriage, which in turn accepted Henry as the head of the churchNew Church of England was the same as the previous Catholic Church.Except: Church service and Bible were now inEnglish.The King was now the head of the Churchnot the Pope.
11 k. Did Henry VIII ever get that boy? 1534, Act of Succession was passed and it stated that all children under Anne would be the next monarchs. This made Mary illegitimate.Henry VIII Six Wives1. Catherine of AragonCatherine of Aragon gave birth to six children. Only Mary lived. Later, Mary became known as Mary I.
12 2. Anne BoleynAnne Boleyn gave birth to Elizabeth, later known as Elizabeth I. She was accused of adultery (not true) and beheaded.Back
13 3. Jane SeymourJane Seymour gave birth to Edward (very sickly), later known as Edward VI. Jane died in child birth.Back
14 4. Anne of Cleves Back Was supposed to create an alliance with Germany Shown a portrait that was inaccurateDivorced her right away because she was uglyGiven land & $ to leave the marriageBack
15 5. Katherine HowardKatherine Howard was accused of cheating on Henry VIII and was put to beheaded. She had no children.Back
16 6. Katherine PaarKatherine Paar was Henry's last wife. Katherine outlived Henry. She was more of a nurse than a wife. She was in love with Thomas Seymour.Back
17 II. The Rest of the Tudors a. Edward VITook over when he was around 9 years old. (16 Regency Rule, the top one being Jane Seymour’s brother, the Duke of Summerset (Edward Seymour)Under his reign the Church of England becomes more Protestant (the Book of Common Prayer)Economy fallsDies 6 years later of TB, and he had no kids.
18 b. Mary IPeople cheered when Mary came to the throne, she thought it was because she was Catholic ---but it was because she was a Tudor.Devout Catholic and tries to change the Church back.People did not want that.She tortured and burned about 300 Protestants at the stake & earned the nickname of Bloody Mary.Died of Cancer leaving her half-sister Elizabeth to take over the throne. During her reign, many people fled EnglandShe wanted to repeal the Act of Supremacy and have church landsreturned. She was married to Philip II of Spain.
20 c. Elizabeth I (1533-1603) 1. Introduction Most outstanding monarch in English history45 year reign and was the last Tudor.Renaissance supporter and was very self-confident2. Problems when she takes over25 years old when she takes overWar with France and conflict with ScotlandReligious divisions (in the eyes of the church she was illegitimate) and economy was bad.
21 d. Religion-Stayed out of religious conflicts. During her 45 years, it let the Protestants establish a church. Did not persecute Catholics.-Mary Queen of Scots was forced out of Scotland and went to EnglandShe was Catholic and everyone knew that since Elizabeth did not have a child Mary Queen of Scots was the next in line.People did not want to go back to being Catholic. Queen found out she was plotting to kill her and Elizabeth had her executed in 1587.
22 4. Foreign Policy-Ends the war with France and makes peace with Scotland-Spanish problemCatholic country v. Protestant countrySpanish Armada- Great Navy, set sail in 1588Sailed in a V formation & met up with Sir FrancisDrake (2nd in command). English did not lose a ship.England now #1 Navy in world and increased pride inEngland. Philip II was the king of Spain.
23 5. Culture 6. No Heir to the Throne Literary development (more then music or paintings)ShakespeareExplorers>> Sir Francis Drake and Sir Walter Raleigh6. No Heir to the ThroneNever married, no childrenLived until the age of 70 and on her death be named King James VI of Scotland as her successor (son of Mary Queen of Scots)
24 7. Accomplishments Smooth over Catholic and Protestants and kept the country united.b. 45 year reign, GoldenAge of one of world’sgreat nationsc. During Reign, Englandemerged as worldpower
25 III. Stuart England a. Stuart Family 1. James I ( ) also James VI of Scotland2. Charles I ( ) beheadedInterregnum ( ) period between Monarchs3. Charles II ( )4. James II ( ) Charles’s brotherGlorious or Bloodless Revolution cast off James II to France5. William and Mary ( )6. Anne ( )
26 b. People hate the Stuarts and it leads to a Civil War 1. James IReligion: Puritans did not like him and they fled to AmericaCame out with the King James BibleBelieved in Divine RightPeople could not trust him because he was a foreignerAt this time, Parliament only met if king called one James tried to rule without calling one. This led tobig money problems.2. Charles INeeded $, a document waiting in exchange for the money called the:Petition of Rights- 1628No taxation without consent of ParliamentNo imprisonment w /out a trialNo quartering of troops
27 Signed the document to get the money but breaks it & started to tax & ignored other provisions. Charles I then dissolved the Parliament and rules for 11 years with out calling one.Led to a Civil WarAt first, Charles troops (Cavilers) winning (more organized) but then Parliament (Roundheads) winsCharles fled and was later caught (surrendered to the Scottish Army) and was executed by beheading.
28 C. Interregnum (1649-1660) period between Monarchs The leader of England during this time was on of the leaders of the Civil War, Oliver CromwellThe government was not called a monarchy but a CommonwealthCromwell was not called a king but the Lord ProtectorHe acted more like a dictator. They was more tradition with a Monarch & the people wanted to return.Shortly after Cromwell’s death Parliament met in 1660 and instead of Cromwell’s son taking over they invited Charles I’s son, Charles II (the exiled Stuart) to be king.Charles II takes over and he is very careful not to fall into the problems that the previous Stuarts had.
29 e. Glorious or Bloodless Revolution d. James II, Charles’s brother takes over after his deathApparently did not learn from his brother’s example and insisted that the King had power to overrule any law of Parliament.He lost the support of many people & even his daughter Mary II.e. Glorious or Bloodless RevolutionPeople now did not want a king who felt that he was above the law. Parliament invited William of Orange (husband of Mary II) to come with an army to protect England from their own king.James II had fled and was making his way down the Thames River when caught.
30 f. New MonarchyMary II was next in line for the throne but she would only accept it if her husband, William of Orange, was made king. Parliament passed the Bill of Rights. It was a law that limited the royal power. The government would become a Constitutional Monarchy.Bill of Rights:Monarchs could not suspend laws passed by ParliamentFree electionTrial by juryWilliam and Mary, in order to be accepted, had to accept the Bill of RightsLeads to the Parliaments having more power and the kings having less to the point where the monarchy will just be a symbol.
31 IV. Agricultural & Industrial Revolution a. What was it?The revolutions were new methods of farming and raising cattle.There was new machinery to produce more food and fewer peopleneeded to get a particular job done.The Agricultural Revolution freed workers to go to industry(which opened the door to the Industrial Revolution).b. Where did it begin?Englandc. Why England?1. Natural Resources (iron, coal, wool, cotton)2. A lot of labor (workers)3. Stable government which supported change and a growing society4. Unity of people5. Strong market (had colonies)6. Good transportation system (canals and roads)
32 d. It started in England, why not other countries? France- Internal problems, still based on AgriculturalDid not have the same raw materialsGermany- were not unitedItaly – Weren’t unitede. Impact of the Revolution on EnglandIncreased the population 10mil-30milUrbanizedNew Classesf. Negative effects of the RevolutionLong hours (12-14 hr days)Low payDangerous working conditionsChild labor (illiteracy)Exploitation of WomenSlumsLighting bad, no health regulations