Presentation on theme: "Women of the Gospels Caravaggio, Martha and Mary Magdalen, c.1598 (Detroit, Institute of Fine Arts)"— Presentation transcript:
1Women of the GospelsCaravaggio, Martha and Mary Magdalen, c.1598 (Detroit, Institute of Fine Arts)
2Hidden History Scarcity of sources in ancient history Loss (recent finds:Dead Sea Scrolls,Nag Hammadi Library)Question of reliabilityValues of recorders:Who/what was considered worth saving?
3Biblical Women’s History: Victims of Silence and Denial Denial of physical presenceCase in point: feeding the 5,000Synagogue service required min. of 10 menDenial of testimony (no validity in Hebrew court of law)Denial of education (“The words of the Torah will be destroyed in the fire sooner than be taught to women”-Talmud)
4Looking for CluesAn effort must be made to “uncover traces of a significant women’s presence and examine indicative and revealing pieces of a far wider reality that lies hidden and, like an underground stream, from time to time trickles out of the written texts, then comes up to the surface” (Ricci 23)
7Jesus’ Ministry in Galilee Luke 8:1-3Soon afterwards he went on through cities and villages, proclaiming and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. The twelve were with him, as well as some women who had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, and Joanna, the wife of Herod’s steward Chuza, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their resources.
8Jesus in Jerusalem Matthew 27:55-56 Mark 15:40-41 Many women were also there, looking on from a distance; they had followed Jesus from Galilee and had provided for him. Among them were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James and Joseph, and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.Mark 15:40-41There were also women looking on from a distance; among them were Mary Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome. These used to follow him and provided for him when he was in Galilee; and there were many other women who had come up with him from Jerusalem.
9Women at the Crucifixion Matt: Mary Magdalene, and Mary themother of James and Joseph, and the motherof the sons of Zebedee (Matt )Mark: Mary Magdalene, and Mary themother of James the younger and of Joses, and Salome. (Mark )Luke: All his acquaintance including the women who had followed him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching these things. (Luke 23.49)John: his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Clopas, and Mary Magdalene (John 19.25)
10Women Witnesses of the Empty Tomb Matt 27:61Mary Magdalene & the other MaryMark 16:1-8Mary Magdalene, Mary the motherof James, and SalomeLuke 24:1-10The women were terrified and bowedtheir facers to the ground Now itwas Mary Magdalene, Joanna, Marythe mother of James, and the otherwomen with themJohn 20:1-2 Mary Magdalenecame to the tomb
11Women May Be Present But Unmentioned Matthew and Mark speak of women following Jesus in Galilee only in the closing stages of their narratives, but clearly numbers of women were accompanying him all along and supporting his ministry.Why the delay in mentioning women followers? (except in Luke)
12Androcentric Environment Little interest in presenceof womenTendency to ignore themunless exceptionalcircumstances ariseWhen men are present,women need not be noticedor mentioned."Saint Mary Magdalene approaching the Sepulchre" Gian Girolamo Savoldo, ca
13Women’s Witness Becomes Important When? When men are absent.And when where male witnesses absent?
14The Disappearance of the Disciples Matt. 26:56 “Then all the disciples deserted him and fled”Mark 14:50 “All of them deserted him and fled”The redactors, unable to cite the witness of the male disciples, are forced to mention the womenQuestions to consider:What if the male disciples had stayed for the crucifixion? . . .Were women at the Last Supper?
15The Marys Mary by Louis Glanzman Mary, the Mother of God by Louis GlanzmanMary Magdalene by Louis Glanzman
16Mary Magdalene Original home? Special healing? Magdala in GalileeSpecial healing?Jesus cast out seven demonsPresent with Jesus in what cases?Followed Jesus wherever he went (Lk 8:2)Present at crucifixion (Mrk 15:40; John 19:25)Observed Jesus’ burial (Mrk 15:47)Observed resurrected Jesus (Matt. 28:1; Mrk 16:1; Lk 24:10; John 20)Magdalene of the Night Light : Georges de la Tour
17Mary Magdalene & the “Gardener” Discuss:Apostola apostolarum?Garden of Eden restored?Importance of their conversation?“Who are you looking for?”“Mary”“Do not hold to me”Noli Me Tangere by Carravaggio 1625
18What the Bible Does NOT Say About Mary Magdalene ProstituteAnointed Jesus’ feetJesus’ wifeFled to Southern Franceto be continued . . .Mary Magdalene by Dante Gabriel Rossetti
19Other Women in the Gospels Henryk Siemiradzki. Christ and the Samaritan Woman
20Proper Social Convention Unconventionality Peter’s Mother-in-Law Mark 1:29-34Conventional features?Identified by relationship to male family memberMale family members represent her to JesusUnconventional features?Jesus goes to her room and touches herShe “ministers” to Jesus-same verb used when angels “ministered” to him in Mark 1:15
21Social Impropriety Propriety and Order The Woman in the Crowd Mark 5: 24b-43 Her problem?“Unclean” (12 years bleeding disorder)Her violations of social propriety?Respectable women do not travel unattended by male family memberRespectable women do not touch men outside familyHow does Jesus supply ALL her needs:“Daughter” and healingWoman with Hemorrhage by Glanzman
22Lowly Girl vs. High Priest Mark 14:66-72 Trial?Jesus interrogated by high priest in courtWho is in lower courtyard?Maid stares at and questions Peter.Gerrit van Honthorst The Denial of St. Peter,cIronies?High priest rejects truth of Jesus’ divinityLowly maid insists on truth of Peter’s discipleship
23The Samaritan Woman Culmination of Biblical Meetings at Wells John 4:4-42 How does Jesus transform symbolism of water?New understanding of marriage, fertility, and lifeHow does Jesus shock the disciples?Defies conventions of talking to women & interacting w/SamaritansTheSamaritanWomen by Louis Glanzman
25The Marys Mary by Louis Glanzman Mary, the Mother of God by Louis GlanzmanMary Magdalene by Louis Glanzman
26Mary, the Mother of Jesus Probably of tribe of Levi (cousin Elizabeth-Luke 1:5,36)Engaged to Joseph (tribe of Judah)Home in Nazareth (Galilee); traveled toBethlehem; escaped to Egypt;returned to NazarethScolds Jesus at the temple (Luke 2:48)Asked for help at wedding in Cana (John 2:1-4)Had other children to care for (Matt 13:55)Tries to take Jesus home (Mark 3:20-31)Stands at foot of cross (John 19:25-27)Was present at Pentecost (Actsd 1:14)Artemesia Gentileschi
27Mary and Martha Sisters of Lazarus Home? Martha’s stories? Bethany, near JerusalemMartha’s stories?Complains to Jesus (Luke 10:38-42)Testimony of faith (John 11:27)Raising of Lazarus by GuercinoMartha by Louis Glanzman
28Mary of Bethany Family? Sister of Martha and Lazarus Her stories? Neglected household duties (Luke 10:38-42)Upset with Jesus when he did not come (John 11:20,28-33)Anointed Jesus at her home in Bethany (John 12:1-8)Raising of Lazarus, by Guercino c. 1619
29Mary Anointing Jesus Mary of Bethany at home w/Lazarus & Martha John 12:1-8Mary of Bethany at home w/Lazarus & MarthaJesus en route to Jerusalem for PassoverCostly nard--extravagent loveJudas complainsForeshadows death &burialForeshadows Jesus’ footwashing for disciples (John 13:1-20)“New Commandment”Courtesy Denim & Lace
30Anonymous AnointingsMark and MatthewUnnamed woman at home of Simon the Leper in BethanyAnoints Jesus’ headExpensive, aromatic oil in alabaster vessel.Disciples complain of wasteLuke 7:36-50Sinful woman of the city anoints Jesus’ feet at home of a Pharisee.
31Mary Magdalene in the Gnostic Gospels Karen King (Harvard Divinity School): The Gospel of Mary of MagdalaElaine Pagels: The Gnostic Gospels and Beyond Belief: The Secret Gospel of Thomas
32Nag Hammadi Library Nag Hammadi Library: an earthenware jar, 1945, Egypt13 leather-bound mss. “codices” of 52 books dating from A.D. (140 A.D.)Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Philip, etc.Gnostic: Insight, knowledgeEarly Christian group with different teachings later considered heretical, therefore suppressedAffirmative of women’s role in spiritual community
33Mary Magdalene in Gnostic Gospels Mary Magdalene: close companion of JesusGospel of Philip: Jesus “used to kiss” her oftenDisciple, evangelist, teacher, mystic (visions) who had esoteric knowledge of Jesus’ teachingMM rivals Peter for leadership of the early church; Peter & Andrew challenge her authorityPeter: “Did he [Jesus] really speak to a woman secretly, without our knowledge, and not openly? Are we to turn and all listen to her? Did he prefer her to us?”
34Pope Gregory’s Decision She whom Luke calls the sinful woman, whom John calls Mary, we believe to be the Mary from whom seven devils were ejected according to Mark. And what did these seven devils signify, if not all the vices? It is clear, brothers, that the woman previously used the unguent to perfume her flesh in forbidden acts. What she therefore displayed more scandalously, she was now offering to God in a more praiseworthy manner She turned the mass of her crimes to virtues, in order to serve God entirely in penance, for as much as she had wrongly held God in contempt.”--Revoked by Catholic Church in
35Miscellaneous MarysMary, mother of James & Joseph (Matthew) or Joses (Mark), witness resurrection, burial, and empty tombMary, the mother of the sons of Zebadee, James & John (Matthew 20:20-23; 27:56), asks Jesus to let her sons sit at his right and left hands in heaven. In Mark, the sons ask for themselves.“The other Mary” (Matthew 27:61 & 28:1)--could be one of the Marys above or another one)Mary, the wife of Clopas (John 19:25), stands at the cross.
36Bibliography Books: Murphey, Cullen. The Word According to Eve, 1998. Newsom, Carol A. and Sharon H. Ringe. Women’s Bible Commentary.Ricci, Carla. Mary Magdalene and Many Others.Graphics:“At the Foot of the Cross” The Society of Saint Mary Magdalene.Footwashing: denimandlace.50megs.com/ alabasterbox2.htmlGlanzman, Louis :Jesus Travels Map:Nag Hammadi Library manuscript:next page
37Bib. Cont.“Raising of Lazarus” Detail by Guercino 1619“Saint Mary Magdalene approaching the Sepulchre" by Gian Girolamo Savoldo listenwv/9.html“Deposition from the Cross” and “Noli me tangere” by Corregio and “Martha and Mary Magdalene” by Caravaggio: from Web Gallery of Art