Presentation on theme: "1 Humanitarian Reform and the Cluster Approach: a Stronger More Predictable Humanitarian Response System."— Presentation transcript:
1 Humanitarian Reform and the Cluster Approach: a Stronger More Predictable Humanitarian Response System
2 Session purpose Describe the cluster approach Identify the global cluster lead agencies and responsibilities Describe how the cluster approach is activated Will someone volunteer to summarize the key points at the end of this session?
3 The ESC Environmental Advisor’s Universe
4 Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Composed of NGO consortia, Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, IOM, World bank and UN agencies Whose reform is it?
5 PARTNERSHIP BUILDING Effective partnerships between UN and non-UN actors HUMANITARIAN FINANCING HUMANITARIAN COORDINATORS CLUSTER APPROACH 4 Pillars of Humanitarian Reform
6 Pillar 1: Humanitarian Coordinators Effective leadership and coordination in humanitarian emergencies
8 Adequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors Pillar 3: The Cluster Approach
9 Between UN and non-UN actors Not so much a 4 th pillar as it is the foundation for the other three pillars Pillar 4: Effective Partnerships
10 Aims of the Cluster Approach High standards of predictability, accountability and partnership in all sectors or areas of activity Responsibility to include all humanitarian partners More strategic and inclusive responses Better prioritization of available resources Strengthening humanitarian response
11 What is a Cluster? A group of organizations providing services within the same ‘ theme ’, e.g. health or protection with ONE lead The cluster ensures overall inclusion of all partners, who can then divide into working or thematic groups (e.g. child protection or gender) Ensures cross-fertilization between organizations working within same ‘ theme ’ despite different focus (e.g. child protection and SGBV) Ensures a collective agreement and planning for the overall direction of the response within a given ‘ theme ’ Ensures a needs rather than capacity driven response What does this mean?
12 Who are the Global Cluster Leads? Agriculture CCCM Early Recovery Education Emergency Shelter Emergency Telecommunications Health Logistics Nutrition Protection WASH FAO IOM/UNHCR UNDP UNICEF and Save the Children UNHCR for IDPS from conflict, IFRC for disaster situations OCHA/UNICEF/WFP WHO WFP UNICEF UNHCR for IDPs from conflict, UNHCR/OHCHR/UNICEF for disasters/civilians affected by conflict other than IDPs UNICEF
13 What is the difference between refugees and IDPs? Refugees are persons who have fled their home country out of a well-founded fear of persecution IDPs, internally displaced persons, are those who have left their homes, but not their home country. The term applies to situations of conflict or disaster. So what are Environmental Refugees?
14 What are cross cutting issues? The Cluster Approach has identified several cross cutting issues: Age Environment Gender HIV/AIDS Human Rights Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
15 1.Inclusion of key humanitarian partners. Who are they? 2.Coordination with national/local authorities, local civil society etc. How? 3.Participatory and community-based approaches. Examples? 4.Attention to priority cross-cutting issues (age, environment, gender, HIV/AIDS etc) What are the implications of environment being a cross cutting issue? 5.Inclusion of early recovery strategy in sector plans. Example? 6.Ensure capacity building. How? 7.Needs assessment and analysis. What is your role in this? Responsibilities of field-based cluster/sector leads (Terms of Reference)
16 Camp Coordination Camp Management At the global level, CCCM is co-chaired by: UNHCR for conflict-induced IDPs IOM for natural disaster-induced IDPs “…. the CCCM cluster applies to all types of communal shelter including: Camp and camp-like situations Settlements Sites Collective centres existing buildings hosting displaced persons” reform.org
17 Early Recovery What is Early Recovery? Recovery that starts early, at onset of crisis Application of development principles to humanitarian situations Establishes the foundations of longer-term recovery Generates/reinforces nationally owned processes for post-crisis recovery “Early Recovery encompasses the restoration of basic services, livelihoods, shelter, governance, security and the rule of law, environment and social dimensions, including the reintegration of displaced populations. It stabilizes human security and addresses underlying risks that contributed to the crisis.”
18 Logistics In the field, logistics cluster operations are expected to: 1.Fill logistics gaps and alleviate bottlenecks 2.Collect/share information & assets 3.Coordinate port & corridor movements to reduce congestion 4.Provide details of transporters and rough indication of market rates 5.Provide guidance on customs issues 6.Provide information on equipment and/or relief items suppliers
19 Water, Sanitation & Hygiene (WASH) The mission of the WASH cluster is to Compile WASH needs assessment data – identification of priority areas, undertake joint assessment planning and implementation, and monitor key WASH indicators
20 Activating the Cluster Three possible elements to activate the cluster approach: In response to dramatic events or disasters To fill major gaps in humanitarian needs By initiative and guidance of the concerned HC/RCs in consultation with the Country Team members
21 Relationships at country level RC/HC Cluster Coord. Group led by OCHA Ag CCCM ER Edu Emer Emer Tele Health Logs Nutrition Protection WASH Shelter Env. Advs’r
22 ESC Personnel in an emergency Cluster coordinator - assigned by the cluster lead agency to coordinate the cluster in the emergency Technical specialist - supports the cluster coordinator and cluster as a whole and ensures that sound technical advise is adhered to in the operation Information manager – manages the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data in support of the cluster Environment advisor
23 ESC Personnel in an emergency Environment advisors– Inter alia: identify environmental partners, assess environmental impact, coordinate programme implementation, develop strategic plans, provide advice on environmental issues, including for post-emergency phases
24 Case Study: Java Earthquake 2006
25 “A shelter-driven emergency” 303,300 houses destroyed or damaged beyond repair, another 200,000 were damaged and in need of repair Strategic planning: ESC established Sphere- based shelter standards that were adhered to by cluster members. Technical working group for environmental issues The ESC was a successful cluster experience
26 Assignment for Tomorrow Before you come to the workshop tomorrow morning it is essential that you have read: Shelter and Nonfood Items Cluster, Tajikistan Compound Disaster Winter 2008 Draft Terms of Reference Emergency Shelter Cluster: Shelter Environment Adviser Terms of Reference Emergency Shelter Cluster: Emergency Shelter Policy with Regards to Environmental Issues These are in your workbook
27 Feedback Please discuss what went well today and where you suggest improvements Nominate a representative to summarize your discussion and report it to the facilitators