Presentation on theme: "Communism in Modern China"— Presentation transcript:
1 Communism in Modern China Fall of Dynastic ChinaThe Communist RevolutionInfluence of Soviet SocialismGreat Leap ForwardThe Cultural RevolutionEconomic Reforms of Deng XiaopingProtests at Tiananmen Square
2 ObjectiveStudents will be able to analyze the effects of communism in China by writing a paragraph summary.
3 CA StandardAnalyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the subsequent political and economic upheavals in China (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the Tiananmen Square uprising).
4 While the USA and USSR squared off in Europe, the Chinese launched another great revolution. The Nationalist forces of Jiang Jieshi fought a civil war against the Communists, led by Mao Zedong. In 1949, Mao marched triumphantly into the Chinese capital of Beijing. A new phase of Chinese history was about to start…
6 In the 1850s, a rebellion against western influence broke out called the Taiping Rebellion.Over 20 million Chinese died..The Communist Party formed in 1921.Soon, the Nationalists (led by Jiang Jieshie) were fighting a civil war against the communists.In 1934, the Nationalists forced the Communists to undertake the 6,000 mile “Long March”.In 1900 Chinese people rose up in the Boxer Rebellion against foreigners.The US Marines were sent into China to put down the Boxer Rebellion.Quick overview of Chinese history in the modern period until the start of World War II.China was split into spheres of influence by foreign nations.In 1912 the Chinese overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and created the Republic of China.Sun Yixian became the first President.The only goods that the Chinese would buy was opium.By the early 1800s, European nations were addicted to Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain. The only thing that they would trade for was silver.
7 Sample Cornell Note Paper Communism in ChinaWrite lecture noteson the right sideWrite questionson the left side
8 Fall of Dynastic ChinaPowerful emperors ruled China for thousands of year in a recurring cycle of rising and falling dynastiesEmperors could lose their “Mandate from Heaven”The large majority of the population were peasants.The Manchu Dynasty fell in Afterward china was controlled by various warlords.
10 2. The Communist Revolution A long civil war preceded the communist Revolution of 1949The Communist army was named the People’s Liberation Army (PLA)Chiang Kai-shek ruled China and fought the Communists before 1949during “Long March” communists took land from rich and gave it to poorcommunists were best fighters against Japanese
14 Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) ) Two ChinasPeople’s Republic of ChinaRepublic of ChinaMao ZedongJiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) )In 1949, nationalist Jiang Jieshi fled to Taiwan and Mao Zedong took over China
15 Complete Worksheet:The Start of the Chinese Revolutions
17 3. The Influence of Soviet Socialism The Soviet-influenced Five-Year Plan emphasized the development of heavy industry rather than revolutionary spirit.The Communist Party organized peasants into state-owned collectives.Communist leaders eventually rejected the guidance of the Soviet Union because they thought the Soviets relied too much on a class of technological experts and not enough on human spirit and the socialist value of equality.
18 Mao Zedong A revolution to remove “3 big mountains” imperialismfeudalismbureaucrat-capitalism“United Front” of …workerspeasantspetty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie
19 Great Leap Forward ( )abandon the Soviet model of economic developmentSoviet “scientific planning”mass mobilizationpeople’s communes
20 4. The Great Leap ForwardMao was initially fearful that the Chinese revolutionary spirit was waning.Mao’s plan to teach masses of people to industrialize China in one “great leap”People were organized into long communes that guaranteed various services such as food and health care.The Great Leap forward failed and resulted in widespread famine.
21 Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) unrealistic output targets industry agricultural and human disaster
22 failure of Great Leap Forward Mao’s PopularityGod-likesuccess of 5-year Planvictory in Civil Warvictory against Japanfailure of Great Leap ForwardLong MarchGoat
23 5. The Cultural Revolution A. Chinese leaders focused on rebuilding the economy after the failure of the Great Leap Forward. Mao believed this period threatened the socialist spirit of the revolution.B. Mao called on young people, termed Red Guards, to guard the culture of the Revolution.C. The Red Guards carried a book of Mao’s quotations, known in western countries as the Little Red Book.D. The Red Guards sought to stamp out “incorrect” or old values and habits.E. Mao died in 1976; afterward his wife and several advisors were tried for sedition.
25 Phase I: Red Guards (1966-69) Purge of party cadres Liu Shaoqi and Deng XiaopingPurge of intellectuals
26 Diplomatic Breakthrough 1972, President Nixon visited Beijing
27 Mao and Zhou Died in 1976 Turning point in China’s postwar era “Gang of Four” were arrestedEnd of the Cultural Revolution
28 Phase II: Lin Biao (1969-71) the putative successor to Mao Zedong the cult of personality around MaoIn 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failedto assassinate Maoto flee to Soviet Union (“9.13”)“9.13” eroded the credibilityof the entire leadershipof the Cultural Revolution
29 Phase III: the “Gang of Four” 1972 – 1976power struggle betweenthe radical “Gang of Four”, led by Jiang Qing, Mao’s wifethe “moderates”, led by Premier Zhou Enlaithe fate of Deng Xiaoping
30 Complete Worksheet:The Communist Party and the Cultural Revolution
31 6. The Economic Reforms of Deng Xiaoping A. China’s new leader, Deng Xiaoping, rejected the extreme socialist values of the Cultural Revolution and shifted the focus of the government back to making China strong economically.B. Peasants were allowed to sell crops from their own private plots and local markets if they first produced their quota of crops to be given to the government.C. Capitalist enterprise came to be accepted in many regions in China.D. The economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping proved successful.
32 7. Protest for Democracy in Tiananmen Square A. In April 1989 students held a protest for democracy at Tiananmen Square in the capital city of Beijing.B. Deng Xiaoping called in the army a second time to use force to clear the square of the protesters, which it did, killing between 700-3,000 citizens.C. The government of Deng Xiaoping arrested student leaders, and no democratic reforms occurred.