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Communism in Modern China

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1 Communism in Modern China
Fall of Dynastic China The Communist Revolution Influence of Soviet Socialism Great Leap Forward The Cultural Revolution Economic Reforms of Deng Xiaoping Protests at Tiananmen Square

2 Objective Students will be able to analyze the effects of communism in China by writing a paragraph summary.

3 CA Standard Analyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the subsequent political and economic upheavals in China (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the Tiananmen Square uprising).

4 While the USA and USSR squared off in Europe, the Chinese launched another great revolution.
The Nationalist forces of Jiang Jieshi fought a civil war against the Communists, led by Mao Zedong. In 1949, Mao marched triumphantly into the Chinese capital of Beijing. A new phase of Chinese history was about to start…


6 In the 1850s, a rebellion against western influence broke out called the Taiping Rebellion. Over 20 million Chinese died.. The Communist Party formed in 1921. Soon, the Nationalists (led by Jiang Jieshie) were fighting a civil war against the communists. In 1934, the Nationalists forced the Communists to undertake the 6,000 mile “Long March”. In 1900 Chinese people rose up in the Boxer Rebellion against foreigners. The US Marines were sent into China to put down the Boxer Rebellion. Quick overview of Chinese history in the modern period until the start of World War II. China was split into spheres of influence by foreign nations. In 1912 the Chinese overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and created the Republic of China. Sun Yixian became the first President. The only goods that the Chinese would buy was opium. By the early 1800s, European nations were addicted to Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain. The only thing that they would trade for was silver.

7 Sample Cornell Note Paper
Communism in China Write lecture notes on the right side Write questions on the left side

8 Fall of Dynastic China Powerful emperors ruled China for thousands of year in a recurring cycle of rising and falling dynasties Emperors could lose their “Mandate from Heaven” The large majority of the population were peasants. The Manchu Dynasty fell in Afterward china was controlled by various warlords.


10 2. The Communist Revolution
A long civil war preceded the communist Revolution of 1949 The Communist army was named the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Chiang Kai-shek ruled China and fought the Communists before 1949 during “Long March” communists took land from rich and gave it to poor communists were best fighters against Japanese

11 Film Clip: Communism in China


13 “War of Liberation”

14 Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) )
Two Chinas People’s Republic of China Republic of China Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) ) In 1949, nationalist Jiang Jieshi fled to Taiwan and Mao Zedong took over China

15 Complete Worksheet: The Start of the Chinese Revolutions

16 China under Mao Zedong 1949 - 1976

17 3. The Influence of Soviet Socialism
The Soviet-influenced Five-Year Plan emphasized the development of heavy industry rather than revolutionary spirit. The Communist Party organized peasants into state-owned collectives. Communist leaders eventually rejected the guidance of the Soviet Union because they thought the Soviets relied too much on a class of technological experts and not enough on human spirit and the socialist value of equality.

18 Mao Zedong A revolution to remove “3 big mountains”
imperialism feudalism bureaucrat-capitalism “United Front” of … workers peasants petty bourgeoisie and national bourgeoisie

19 Great Leap Forward ( ) abandon the Soviet model of economic development Soviet “scientific planning” mass mobilization people’s communes

20 4. The Great Leap Forward Mao was initially fearful that the Chinese revolutionary spirit was waning. Mao’s plan to teach masses of people to industrialize China in one “great leap” People were organized into long communes that guaranteed various services such as food and health care. The Great Leap forward failed and resulted in widespread famine.

21 Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) unrealistic output targets industry
agricultural and human disaster

22 failure of Great Leap Forward
Mao’s Popularity God-like success of 5-year Plan victory in Civil War victory against Japan failure of Great Leap Forward Long March Goat

23 5. The Cultural Revolution
A. Chinese leaders focused on rebuilding the economy after the failure of the Great Leap Forward. Mao believed this period threatened the socialist spirit of the revolution. B. Mao called on young people, termed Red Guards, to guard the culture of the Revolution. C. The Red Guards carried a book of Mao’s quotations, known in western countries as the Little Red Book. D. The Red Guards sought to stamp out “incorrect” or old values and habits. E. Mao died in 1976; afterward his wife and several advisors were tried for sedition.

24 Phase I: Red Guards ( )

25 Phase I: Red Guards (1966-69) Purge of party cadres
Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping Purge of intellectuals

26 Diplomatic Breakthrough
1972, President Nixon visited Beijing

27 Mao and Zhou Died in 1976 Turning point in China’s postwar era
“Gang of Four” were arrested End of the Cultural Revolution

28 Phase II: Lin Biao (1969-71) the putative successor to Mao Zedong
the cult of personality around Mao In 1971 Lin allegedly tried but failed to assassinate Mao to flee to Soviet Union (“9.13”) “9.13” eroded the credibility of the entire leadership of the Cultural Revolution

29 Phase III: the “Gang of Four”
1972 – 1976 power struggle between the radical “Gang of Four”, led by Jiang Qing, Mao’s wife the “moderates”, led by Premier Zhou Enlai the fate of Deng Xiaoping

30 Complete Worksheet: The Communist Party and the Cultural Revolution

31 6. The Economic Reforms of Deng Xiaoping
A. China’s new leader, Deng Xiaoping, rejected the extreme socialist values of the Cultural Revolution and shifted the focus of the government back to making China strong economically. B. Peasants were allowed to sell crops from their own private plots and local markets if they first produced their quota of crops to be given to the government. C. Capitalist enterprise came to be accepted in many regions in China. D. The economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping proved successful.

32 7. Protest for Democracy in Tiananmen Square
A. In April 1989 students held a protest for democracy at Tiananmen Square in the capital city of Beijing. B. Deng Xiaoping called in the army a second time to use force to clear the square of the protesters, which it did, killing between 700-3,000 citizens. C. The government of Deng Xiaoping arrested student leaders, and no democratic reforms occurred.

33 Film Clip: Dissent in China


35 China in the 1990s China continued to move towards democratic reforms in the economy but NOT in politics China has a poor human rights record Repressed pro-democratic movements

36 China Today China remains Communist
Has many democratic reforms in the economy But people have limited personal freedoms (no democracy) Still has conflicts with Taiwan

37 Hong Kong Hong Kong was a city in China controlled by the British
July 1, 1997 Britain gave back Hong Kong to China China promised to not interfere with Hong Kong’s way of life for 50 years

38 Other events in Asia would cause great concern for Americans worried about the spread of communism.
Korea and Vietnam would see the USA act internationally to contain communism.


40 Sample Cornell Note Paper
Communism in China Write a paragraph Summary

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