4How did World War I Impact Russia? WWI strained Russian resourcesFactories could not manufacture enough war suppliesPoor transportation system meant insufficient supplies arrived at the war frontNot enough weapons, rifles, and ammunitionPoor equipped soldiers and badly trained1915: 2 million Russian casualties
5The Czar’s ResponseCzar Nicholas II went to the war front to take command of his armiesNicholas II was equally incompetent to lead as were his Russian generals
6Who was running the Russian government in the czar’s absence?
7Rasputin Nicholas II went to Eastern Front to rally his troops Left his wife, Czarina Alexandra in charge of Russian governmentAlexandra fell under the influence of the mysterious Rasputin who claimed to have magical healing powersAlexandra believed Rasputin cured her son Alexis of hemophilia (uncontrolled bleeding when blood does not clot effectively)
8Rasputin’s InfluenceTo reward Rasputin, Alexandra allowed Rasputin to make key political decisionsRasputin put his friends in high government positions and was corruptOpponents assassinated Rasputin for his excessive involvement in government affairs
9Crisis Worsens in Russia Increased military disasters and battlefield deathsFood and fuel shortages; prices increasedStriking workers marched in the streets demanding breadGovernment military troops refused to open fire on the protestorsWith no more military support to support his leadership, the Tsar abdicated and fled
10Temporary GovernmentPoliticians in the Duma (legislature) established a provisional government after the czar abdicated (surrendered his throne)Alexander Kerensky was the leader of the Provisional GovernmentProvisional government continued fighting against Germany in WWIRevolutionaries secretly were plotting to overthrow the provisional governmentRevolutionaries established soviets (council of soldiers and workers) and, at first, worked with the provisional governmentRadical revolutionaries called Bolsheviks were intent on overthrowing the Provisional (democratic) governmentThe Bolsheviks were led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
11Lenin and the Bolsheviks V.I. Lenin ( )Lenin hated the tsarist governmentsLenin became a revolutionary at a young age when the tsar executed his older brother for planning to kill the czarLenin planned a revolution based on the writings of German Karl MarxLenin believed the proletariat (working class) would revolt, overthrow the government, and establish a socialist state
12Bolsheviks vs. Mensheviks Bolsheviks (“majority”) believed that socialism could be achieved through swift, violent, and radical changes to societyMensheviks (“minority”) believed socialism could be achieved through gradual and moderate reforms such as higher wages, increases suffrage, and social welfare programs
14Lenin Returned from Exile Lenin had been exiled in SwitzerlandGermany knew that Lenin was a Russian revolutionaryGermany wanted Lenin to return to Russia and spark the Russian RevolutionGermany felt that Russia would be unable to continue fighting the war IF Russia was also involved in a revolution
15Lenin’s Promise to the Russian People Lenin and the Bolsheviks promised to the Russian people “peace, land, and bread”Peace = withdrawal from WWILand = poor peasants would own the landBread = starving Russians would receive sufficient food to avoid starvation
17Continued Mistakes of the Provisional Government Continued fighting World War IRussians tired of warThousands of soldiers desertedKerensky launched a disastrous military offensive in July, 1917Failed to deal with land reformPeasants demanded landCity workers wanted food and fuel
18Bolsheviks Attacked November, 1917 Armed factory workers (Red Guards) and rebelling sailors attacked the provisional governmentLenin’s Bolsheviks seized power in just a few days without a struggleKerensky’s Provisional Government collapsedMoscow became the Bolshevik’s capitalKremlin became the Bolshevik HQ
21What actions did the Bolsheviks take after seizing power? Ended private ownership of landDistributed land to peasantsWorkers given control of factories and minesNew red flag symbolizing workers and peasants createdBolsheviks renamed themselves Communists
22End of World War I Lenin sought peace with Germany Soviet Union (USSR) signed Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany (March, 1918)USSR surrendered much territory and populationTerms of treaty angered and humiliated RussiansLenin wanted peace with Germany to concentrate Russian resources to defeat the communist enemiesGermany transferred the troops on the Eastern Front to fight the Allies on the Western Front
23Russian Civil WarRussian Civil War erupted between the Reds (communists) and the White (counter-revolutionaries, Mensheviks, democrats, etc.)Civil War lasted three bloody years“White” armies wanted to defeat the communistsAllies supported the White armyAllies hoped that White army would defeat the communists and support fight against GermanyBritain, France, and USA sent soldiers to fight in the Russian civil warThe Communists (Reds) defeated the Whites (Mensheviks)
24White Army Enemies of the Bolsheviks Bolsheviks had the responsibility to eliminate all enemiesLeon Trotsky commanded the Bolshevik army and fought a three year civil war to secure absolute control of Russia15 million Russians died in civil warCivil war caused famine, hunger, and flu epidemicRussia was left economically in ruinsLeon Trotsky
25What happened to Czar Nicholas II and his family? Communists executed Czar Nicholas II, Czarina Alexandra, and their five children in July, 1918Communists felt that Czar would serve as rallying symbol for the White army
26Cheka Secret Soviet police force Used terror tactics to control the peopleExecuted many citizens suspected of being against the revolution
27Gulag Forced labor camps Political prisoners and counter revolutionaries sent to the gulag to work in hard (bitterly cold and scorching hot) labor conditions
28“War Communism”Policy of taking over banks, mines, factories, and railroadsRural peasants were forced to deliver their crops to feed urban dwellers and the militaryPeasants were drafted into the armyPeasants forced to work in urban factories
29CommissarsTrotsky turned the Bolsheviks into a superior fighting forceCommissars – communist party officials – were assigned to monitor the army officersCommissars taught communist party principles and demanded absolute loyalty – or risk imprisonment or execution
30Building the Communist Soviet Union Russia was in chaosMillions of Russians died in WWI and the Russian Civil WarThousands died from starvation, illness, and diseaseThe communists under Lenin faced enormous challenges to repair a destroyed economyGirl starving during Russian famine (1921)
31New GovernmentRussia united into the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) (Soviet Union)Constitution establishedElected legislature (Supreme Soviet)Right to vote over age 18All means of production belonged to workers and peasantsThe Communist party, however, was supreme over the people – hardly a social democracy!USSR used the army and secret police to enforce its will
32End of war communism War communism damaged the Soviet economy Mine and factory production decreasedPeasants stopped planting and harvesting crops knowing the communist party would seize the cropsLenin elected to halt the policy of war communism
33New Economic PolicyLenin launched his New Economic Policy (NEP) to replace war communismPeasants allowed to sell crops instead of giving crops to governmentPeople could buy and sell goods for profitGovernment controlled banks, major industries, and communicationSmall factories, businesses, and farms operated under private ownershipForeign investment encouraged
34Advantages of the New Economic Policy (NEP) NEP restored some confidence in the Soviet economyEnded armed resistance to the new communist governmentFood and industrial production climb back to pre-war levels by 1928Standard of living improvedLenin believed NEP would only be a temporary flirtation with capitalismLenin’s goal was to bring the USSR to a pure communist state
35Death of Lenin Lenin died of a stroke in 1924 at age 54 Power struggle – who would take control of the Communist Party?Top two contenders: Leon Trotsky and Joseph StalinLenin’s embalmed corpse is on display in Moscow.
36Stalin vs. Trotsky Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin Brilliant Marxist thinkerLeader of Bolshevik RevolutionUrged support for a worldwide revolution against capitalismFled to MexicoContinued to criticize StalinStalin’s secret agent murdered Trotsky in Mexico in 1940Joseph StalinClever political operatorBehind-the-scenes organizerDesired to build socialism (communism) at home before exporting it globallyIsolated and stripped Trotsky of membership in communist partyStalin became ruthless dictator of USSR
37Powerpoint Questions1. What was the slogan the Communists promised to the people?2. What treaty ended WWI between Russia and Germany?3. The last czar of Russia was ____.4. Who was the mysterious man who promised to cure Alexis of hemophilia, the son of the czars?5. The leader of the Provisional Government was __.6. The Communists who were the majority were known as the __________.
38Powerpoint Questions7. The working class people who were to stage the revolution were known as the _________.8. The Russian secret police were called the _____.9. If you disagreed with the communists, you could be arrested and sent to a _______.10. Whose job was to teach communist party principles and ensure loyalty to the party?11. What was “war communism”?
39Powerpoint Questions12. The Russian civil war was fought between the ___ and the ___ armies.13. Who succeeded Lenin as the leader of Russia following Lenin’s death?14. What economic policy replaced “war communism”?