Agenda of workshop 1. Historical background of both Rwanda and the Congo and current situation. 2. Alternatives to Violence Programs (AVP) 3. Mary Kay’s work in Rwanda and the Congo.
History of Rwanda Pre-colonial period – Tutsi cattle breeders arrived in Central Africa and established a monarchy headed by a king and a feudal hierarchy of Tutsi nobles and gentry. Over the years race and class were less distinct and there was peaceful times of living together. End of 19 th century – Nyiginya dynasty Hutus tended to be farmers, Tutsis were stockbreeders and Twa were hunters or potters.
Colonialism First European, a German, came to what is now Rwanda followed by the white fathers or missionaries. Belgium rule – 1915-1962. Hamitic hypothesis 1959 revolt 1960-61 – Hutu election victory 1961 – 1967 – Tutsi massacres
After Independence First republic – 1962-1973 – Kept up with racial profiling. This time the Hutus were seen as the rightful inhabitants and the Tutsis were foreigners. 1972-1973 – Ethnic violence erupted with more massacres. 1973-1994 – Habyarimana government 1994 – Second genocide
History of Rwanda cont. The 1994 genocide in Rwanda was unprecedented and over 800,000 men, women and children were murdered. Within 4 months, 1.75 million people had fled. Work has been going on in Rwanda after the genocide to promote sustainability with economic and social development.
History of Congo Pre-colonial Colonizaton (1908-1960) Republic of Congo (1960-65) Zaire (1965-1996) DR of Congo (1997)
DR of Congo’s relationship to Rwanda 1996 – Rwandan war and genocide had spilled over to Zaire. Use of refugee camps for Hutu military. Hutus and Zairian military join to fight Congolese ethnic Tutsis. Tutsi militia was supported by Rwanda and Uganda to oust Mobutu. Kabila named himself president when Mobutu left. 1997 – renamed the DR of Congo
DR of Congo’s relationship to Rwanda Several peace deals were brokered between Rwanda and Uganda but more fighting continued. By June 2003 all foreign troops except Rwanda pulled out of the Congo 2006 – Multi-party elections were held and Kabila was sworn in as president. There are still Rwandan refugees in the Congo and a ceasefire was again obtained between Rwanda and the Congo in 2007. Rwanda continues to chase down Hutu on the Congolese side and tensions remain high between the countries.
Rwanda today Visit to Rwanda Economic situation Political situation Psychological healing from the genocide. a. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda b. Gacaca system
Rwanda Today c. Memorialization d. Solidarity camps
Genocide healing and reconcilation True healing of a country includes addressing the social, economic, political and emotional needs of a country. Development activities can help reduce mental health problems due to the war. On the other hand, trauma healing can help to strengthen people to contribute to development. NGO’s
Projects and interventions International Rescue Committee UNICEF
Projects and interventions There has been research and programs set up to deal with trauma from the genocide. One particular work has been by Ervin Staub, Laurie Pearlman and Vachel Miller. Another is by Annemiek Richters, Cora Dekker and Klaas de Jonge.
Staub, Pearlman and Miller Work looks at the relationship between reconciliation and forgiveness. Reconciliation Forgiveness
Staub, Pearlman and Miller 1. Developing an intervention that could be used by groups after researchers left. 2. Two-week seminar with Rwandans from local and international NGO’. 3. Seminars for national leaders. 4. Evaluation of the Gacaca system. 5. Seminars with journalists 6. Radio programs
Richters, Dekker and de Jonge Socio-therapy Focuses less on terrible memories of the past and focuses primarily on the here and now situation. Main goal is increasing safety and trust within a group
References A. Richters, C. Dekker & K. deJonge (2005). Reconciliation in the aftermath of violent conflict in Rwanda. Intervention, 3, 3, 203-221. E. Staub, L.A. Pearlman & V. Miller (2003). Healing the roots of genocide in Rwanda, Peace Review, 15, 3, 287-294.
References E. Staub, L.A. Pearlman, A. Gubin & A. Hagengimana (2005). Healing, reconciliation, forgiving and the prevention of violence after genocide or mass killing: An intervention and its experimental evaluation in Rwanda. Journal of social and clinical psychology, 24, 3, 297-334. A. Dyregrov, L. Gupta, R. Gjestad & E. Mukanoheli (2000). Trauma exposure and psychological reactions to genocide among Rwandan children. Journal of traumatic stress, 13, 1, 3-21.