2Views of Enlightenment & French Revolution Figure Head of Movement Europe after NapoleonConservativesVs.LiberalsMonarch & NoblesWho should rule?Male Property OwnersStability and orderGoals of GovernmentProtect basic rights to liberty and propertyMonarchyForm of GovernmentRepublic with constitution and separation of powersControlled by NoblesEconomyLaissez FaireEstablished ChurchReligionFreedom of ReligionStatus-quo, return to pre-Revolution waysViews of Enlightenment & French RevolutionStrongly supported bothPrince MetternichFigure Head of MovementJohn Stuart Mill
3What are Nationalists? What were they interested in? Who: Balkans (Ottomans), Greeks (Ottoman).What: National groups who shared a common heritage, set out to win their own state.When: 1800sWhere: Serbia, Greece, Spain, Portugal & ItalyWhy: This was an outgrowth of the Enlightenment and French Revolution.
4More French Revolutions!!! Louis XVIII’s Constitutional MonarchyFrance had a constitution (Charter of French Liberties) with a bicameral legislature, but still kept the monarchy in place.ConservativesUNHAPPY with constitution and wanted to restore the old regime.LiberalsSlightly Unhappy, wanted more people involved in the government.
5Charles X Brother of Louis XVIII (died in 1824) Believer in Absolutism.Rejected his brother’s charter.Suspended the Legislature.Limited the right to vote.Restricted the press.French Revolution of 1830Liberals & Radicals barricaded streets and fired on soldiers.They took control of Paris.A scared Charles abdicated and fled to England.
6French Revolution of 1848 Causes Effects Louis Philippe’s reforms helped only the rich, while workers still couldn’t vote.Poor harvests, bread prices soar, jobs lost.France ripe for Revolution.EffectsStreets blocked in Paris.Forced Louis Philippe to abdicate.Bourgeoisie gained power and rights, peasants cry “Bread or Lead,” protestors attacked 1500 people killed.Right and left distrusted each other.
7Louis Napoleon/Napoleon III Nephew of Napoleon BonapartePresented himself as a man who cared about the workers, but his famous name helped with conservatives.1852 he proclaimed himself emperor, taking the title Napoleon III, which ended the 2nd Republic.Used a plebiscite to gain/show approval, 90% of voters supported him.
8“When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.” Meaning – As French Revolutions occurred, they spread throughout Europe.Examples – Belgium & Poland after the 1830 Revolution.Austria, Italy & Germany after the 1848 Revolution.
9Clemens von Metternich Prince of AustriaVery ConservativeAfter 30 years of controlling politics he was forced to escape in disguise from student protestors.Government was forced to end serfdom and write a constitution.Austrian army regained control of Vienna.
11Causes of Discontent Ethnic & Social Hierarchy Only Spanish born citizens could hold top jobs in government & church, others were angered by this.Slaves (Africans) longed for freedom.Other groups distrusted one another but banded together once independent creoles dominated.
12Causes of Discontent Enlightenment Ideas Read works of Voltaire, Rousseau & Montesquieu.Inspiration through other revolutions.Women involved, exchanging ideas.NapoleonSaw Napoleon invade Spain and oust king.Saw Spain’s weakness as an opportunity to reject foreign domination and demand independence from colonial rule.
13Mexican IndependenceCreoles wanted independence but did not want too many changes.1810 – Miguel Hidalgo a creole priest started revolution with “El Grito de Delores” speech.Mexicans supported Hidalgo until he tried to get rights for the Natives. A year after his speech, with his support gone, Hidalgo was captured and executed.Jose Morelos led the rebellion for 4 years until he was captured & killed in 1815.1820 – Liberals forced the King of Spain to draft a constitution. Fearing a new government Agustin de Iturbide supported the revolutionaries and overthrew the Spanish in Mexico. This led to military rule for the next 100 years.
14Simon BolivarBeliefs / Who was he? An educated creole who admired the French and American Revolutions.What did he want? He dreamed of winning independence from Spain.Plan & “The Liberator” – Bolivar marched his army across the Andes and attacked the Spanish at Bogota with the help of the Ilaneros. Bolivar gained his nickname by freeing Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru & Bolivia.
15Jose de San Martin Early beginnings Revolution Other Victories Born in Argentina, San Martin went to Europe for military training.RevolutionIn 1816 he helped Argentina win their independence from Spain.Other VictoriesSan Martin defeated the Spanish in Chile before moving into Peru, eventually working with Bolivar for a short time.
16Brazil’s Independence Napoleon’s InfluenceWhen Napoleon’s armies conquered Portugal, the royal family fled to Brazil.The king made many reforms and left his son Dom Pedro to rule.Pedro I gave Brazil its independence and he took the throne.He allowed a constitution, freedom of press & religion and elected legislation.Stayed a monarchy until 1889 when it became a republic.