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Age of the Reformation III Erasmus, Zwingli, and Calvin.

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1 Age of the Reformation III Erasmus, Zwingli, and Calvin

2 Desiderius Erasmus Born out of wedlock to a Dutch priest Gerard and a physicians daughter MargaretBorn out of wedlock to a Dutch priest Gerard and a physicians daughter Margaret After his mother died his guardians stole his inheritance and forced him into a monasteryAfter his mother died his guardians stole his inheritance and forced him into a monastery was a monk and became thoroughly disgusted with the institution was a monk and became thoroughly disgusted with the institution Obtained a bishops patronage, gained license to become a priest, and fled the monasteryObtained a bishops patronage, gained license to become a priest, and fled the monastery Studied at the universities of Paris and OrleansStudied at the universities of Paris and Orleans He had a pointy headHe had a pointy head

3 pointy head hiding under hat

4 Desiderius Erasmus He survived mainly by patronage living off the many “gifts” given to him for his clever writingHe survived mainly by patronage living off the many “gifts” given to him for his clever writing Studied classics incessantly and was a deep thinker, called the father of Christian HumanismStudied classics incessantly and was a deep thinker, called the father of Christian Humanism Wrote prolifically, including many works which criticized monks, priests, and the papacyWrote prolifically, including many works which criticized monks, priests, and the papacy His most notable work was a Greek New Testament with Latin translationHis most notable work was a Greek New Testament with Latin translation He was continually in and out of favor with the papacyHe was continually in and out of favor with the papacy

5 Desiderius Erasmus He loved peace, but also morality and wanted true reform within the churchHe loved peace, but also morality and wanted true reform within the church Lived Latin, he spoke very little of any other language including his native DutchLived Latin, he spoke very little of any other language including his native Dutch Courted the favor of Pope Leo X, but never stopped criticizing the immoral things he didCourted the favor of Pope Leo X, but never stopped criticizing the immoral things he did He was too Protestant to be Catholic and too Catholic to be Protestant, he never stopped trying to reform the church, but was never willing to be a “reformer”.He was too Protestant to be Catholic and too Catholic to be Protestant, he never stopped trying to reform the church, but was never willing to be a “reformer”.

6 Desiderius Erasmus Luther, Zwingli and most other reformers looked to Erasmus for teaching though he conflicted with Luther oftenLuther, Zwingli and most other reformers looked to Erasmus for teaching though he conflicted with Luther often Luther was said to have “hatched the egg Erasmus laid”Luther was said to have “hatched the egg Erasmus laid” Erasmus and Luther debated heatedly over the issue of Free Will, neither ever admitting the other was rightErasmus and Luther debated heatedly over the issue of Free Will, neither ever admitting the other was right He died Feb without a priest repeating “O Jesus, have mercy; Lord, deliver me; Lord make an end’ Lord, have mercy upon me!”He died Feb without a priest repeating “O Jesus, have mercy; Lord, deliver me; Lord make an end’ Lord, have mercy upon me!”

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8 Ulrich Zwingli Huldreich Huldrych Ulrich Zwingel Zwingle Zwingli

9 Ulrich Zwingli Was born 7 weeks after Luther, Jan 1, 1484Was born 7 weeks after Luther, Jan 1, 1484 His father was a town magistrate his mother the sister of a priest making him middle classHis father was a town magistrate his mother the sister of a priest making him middle class Grew up in a small town raised with Catholic doctrine by his familyGrew up in a small town raised with Catholic doctrine by his family Started college at 14 and finished with a master of arts in 1506Started college at 14 and finished with a master of arts in 1506 Bought the pastorship of Glarus where he taught until 1516Bought the pastorship of Glarus where he taught until 1516 Was a humanist and a patriot, but not particularly religiousWas a humanist and a patriot, but not particularly religious

10 Ulrich Zwingli Protested strongly against Swiss mercenariesProtested strongly against Swiss mercenaries Was unchaste in the fashion of the dayWas unchaste in the fashion of the day 1516 due to political pressure he transferred to Einsiedeln where he studied scripture and the early church fathers1516 due to political pressure he transferred to Einsiedeln where he studied scripture and the early church fathers 1517 Started preaching against the abuses in the church, including a rejection of indulgences1517 Started preaching against the abuses in the church, including a rejection of indulgences He received a papal pension until 1520He received a papal pension until 1520 In Zurich he preached expositorially through the New Testament and gained great fameIn Zurich he preached expositorially through the New Testament and gained great fame 1519 became chief pastor in the Zurich Grossmünster, the primary Swiss church1519 became chief pastor in the Zurich Grossmünster, the primary Swiss church

11 Ulrich Zwingli He began preaching even more strongly against the sins that stemmed from the Catholic churchHe began preaching even more strongly against the sins that stemmed from the Catholic church Zurich was struck by plague and Zwingli helped until he became infected as wellZurich was struck by plague and Zwingli helped until he became infected as well Lent 1522 Zwingli preached and wrote a tract rejecting the Lenten dietary lawsLent 1522 Zwingli preached and wrote a tract rejecting the Lenten dietary laws Gathered a petition from 10 priests endorsing clerical marriage, but was rejectedGathered a petition from 10 priests endorsing clerical marriage, but was rejected

12 Ulrich Zwingli The petition was rejected, but Zwingli entered into a secret marriage anywayThe petition was rejected, but Zwingli entered into a secret marriage anyway 1523 Published the 67 articles which inspired debate throughout Switzerland1523 Published the 67 articles which inspired debate throughout Switzerland 1524 Zurich and a few other cantons accept the evangelical position and become protestant1524 Zurich and a few other cantons accept the evangelical position and become protestant Two years after their secret marriage Anna Reinhart and Zwingli get marriedTwo years after their secret marriage Anna Reinhart and Zwingli get married The Protestants start mass icon destructionThe Protestants start mass icon destruction Zwingli instituted the symbolic communionZwingli instituted the symbolic communion

13 Ulrich Zwingli The protestants and Catholics started meeting in open war in Cappel1529 The protestants and Catholics started meeting in open war in Cappel Against the advice of Zwingli several of the protestant cantons sought peaceful negotiationsAgainst the advice of Zwingli several of the protestant cantons sought peaceful negotiations They negotiated peace but didn’t gain all of the hoped for concessionsThey negotiated peace but didn’t gain all of the hoped for concessions 1531 The second battle of Cappel occurred as was inevitable1531 The second battle of Cappel occurred as was inevitable Zwingli led his troops and was injured while tending the wounded, later he was slain, his body burned, ashes mixed with a swine’s and scatteredZwingli led his troops and was injured while tending the wounded, later he was slain, his body burned, ashes mixed with a swine’s and scattered

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15 John Calvin Born July 10, 1509 in Noyon la SainteBorn July 10, 1509 in Noyon la Sainte Calvin grew up well educated in a noble familyCalvin grew up well educated in a noble family At 12 he received the tonsure and the revenue of a chaplaincy in the cathedral of NoyonAt 12 he received the tonsure and the revenue of a chaplaincy in the cathedral of Noyon At 14 he entered college studying first in Paris then in Orleans and BourgesAt 14 he entered college studying first in Paris then in Orleans and Bourges At 18 he received the charge of S. MartinAt 18 he received the charge of S. Martin A good student, religious and not prone to excesses, was nicknamed “The Accusative”A good student, religious and not prone to excesses, was nicknamed “The Accusative”

16 John Calvin Calvin studied the humanities: law, philosophy, and theologyCalvin studied the humanities: law, philosophy, and theology He was an exceptional student who was teaching as often as taking classesHe was an exceptional student who was teaching as often as taking classes Calvin converted to Protestantism Calvin converted to Protestantism Shortly after his conversion he became a leading figure in the French evangelical partyShortly after his conversion he became a leading figure in the French evangelical party Paris started a mass persecution of Protestants leading Calvin to flee to Basel where he wrote the first edition of The InstitutesParis started a mass persecution of Protestants leading Calvin to flee to Basel where he wrote the first edition of The Institutes

17 John Calvin Calvin continued his travels through Switzerland and went to Geneva where he planned to spend the night1536 Calvin continued his travels through Switzerland and went to Geneva where he planned to spend the night William Farel convinced him to stay and become pastor in GenevaWilliam Farel convinced him to stay and become pastor in Geneva Calvin was well received and started preaching and reforming Geneva into a moral cityCalvin was well received and started preaching and reforming Geneva into a moral city He endorsed the enforcement of moral laws by magistrates throughout Geneva which caused great discontentHe endorsed the enforcement of moral laws by magistrates throughout Geneva which caused great discontent

18 John Calvin All citizens were forced to take an oath of confession or be banishedAll citizens were forced to take an oath of confession or be banished The moral laws and forced confession caused the reformers to be expelled from GenevaThe moral laws and forced confession caused the reformers to be expelled from Geneva Calvin moved to Strassburg where he lived poorly but happilyCalvin moved to Strassburg where he lived poorly but happily He taught both in churches and universities learning much of/from the LutheransHe taught both in churches and universities learning much of/from the Lutherans Started the “little French church” for the many French refugeesStarted the “little French church” for the many French refugees

19 John Calvin in Strassburg Calvin married Idelette de Bure a member of his congregation.1540 in Strassburg Calvin married Idelette de Bure a member of his congregation. In the meantime Geneva suffered from a lack of preaching and leadership and ultimately decided to call back the reformersIn the meantime Geneva suffered from a lack of preaching and leadership and ultimately decided to call back the reformers Strassburg and Geneva fought over Calvin, and Calvin ultimately and somewhat unwillingly returned to GenevaStrassburg and Geneva fought over Calvin, and Calvin ultimately and somewhat unwillingly returned to Geneva Geneva as a result was dramatically reformed, especially in the enforcement of moral lawGeneva as a result was dramatically reformed, especially in the enforcement of moral law

20 John Calvin Geneva epitomized the union of church and state, being led by Calvin’s moral dictatesGeneva epitomized the union of church and state, being led by Calvin’s moral dictates Immoral behavior included dancing, gambling, drunkenness, frequenting taverns, profanity, luxury, excesses of entertainment, extravagant or immodest dress, singing licentious or irreligious songs and were all punishable by censure, fine, or imprisonmentImmoral behavior included dancing, gambling, drunkenness, frequenting taverns, profanity, luxury, excesses of entertainment, extravagant or immodest dress, singing licentious or irreligious songs and were all punishable by censure, fine, or imprisonment The death penalty was allowed only for heresy, idolatry, blasphemy, and repeated adulteryThe death penalty was allowed only for heresy, idolatry, blasphemy, and repeated adultery

21 John Calvin Miguel Servetus fleeing execution for heresy in France stopped temporarily in GenevaMiguel Servetus fleeing execution for heresy in France stopped temporarily in Geneva Calvin had him arrested, he was then tried, found a heretic, and burned at the stakeCalvin had him arrested, he was then tried, found a heretic, and burned at the stake The Servetus incident was a particularly black mark on Geneva and Calvin, belying much of the Protestant preached freedomThe Servetus incident was a particularly black mark on Geneva and Calvin, belying much of the Protestant preached freedom 1563 Calvin became sick, then bed ridden eventually dying peacefully at home in May of Calvin became sick, then bed ridden eventually dying peacefully at home in May of 1564

22 Calvin’s Theology PredestinationPredestination –Double predestination, God appoints the elect to heaven and the damned to hell –“O man who art thou that repliest against God?” Infant BaptismInfant Baptism –An evidence of membership in the church and an inspiration to a later on moral life Infant SalvationInfant Salvation –Only if the parents were believers


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