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Slide 1 PAX ROMANA Major Carlos Rascon. Slide 2 SOURCES Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp. 34-45, 72-86 Jones, The Art of War in the Western.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 PAX ROMANA Major Carlos Rascon. Slide 2 SOURCES Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp. 34-45, 72-86 Jones, The Art of War in the Western."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 PAX ROMANA Major Carlos Rascon

2 Slide 2 SOURCES Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp. 34-45, 72-86 Jones, The Art of War in the Western World, pp. 34-45, 72-86 Montrossm, War Through the Ages, pp. 70- 88 Montrossm, War Through the Ages, pp. 70- 88 Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 39-49 Preston and Wise, Men in Arms, pp. 39-49 Bradford, Julius Caesar, pp.113-164 Bradford, Julius Caesar, pp.113-164 Blois, The Roman Army and Politics in the First Century B.C., pp. 6-21 Blois, The Roman Army and Politics in the First Century B.C., pp. 6-21

3 Slide 3 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Know and identify the changes made in the Roman military organization after the Third Punic War and the causes of these changes Know and identify the changes made in the Roman military organization after the Third Punic War and the causes of these changes Know and describe the civil wars between Caesar and Pompey, with emphasis on the reasons for Caesar’s success militarily Know and describe the civil wars between Caesar and Pompey, with emphasis on the reasons for Caesar’s success militarily Comprehend and explain the power struggle after the death of Caesar, with emphasis on the Battle of Actium Comprehend and explain the power struggle after the death of Caesar, with emphasis on the Battle of Actium

4 Slide 4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Know and recall the key changes in the Roman military system from Actium to Adrianople and the causes of these changes Know and recall the key changes in the Roman military system from Actium to Adrianople and the causes of these changes Comprehend and explain the concept of Pax Romana Comprehend and explain the concept of Pax Romana

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6 Slide 6 ROMAN MILITARY CHANGES AFTER THIRD PUNIC WAR Legions shift to composition of Roman and non-Roman citizens –Scarce Recruits –Voluntary enlistment replaced compulsory –Military becomes less popular with the very rich –Video 8min (Roman legions)

7 Slide 7 ROMAN MILITARY CHANGES AFTER THIRD PUNIC WAR Triarii, Principes and Hostati abolished in favor of “Light” and “Heavy” troops Triarii, Principes and Hostati abolished in favor of “Light” and “Heavy” troops Professional Army Emerges Professional Army Emerges Rome’s key factor- Discipline Rome’s key factor- Discipline

8 Slide 8 Enlistments and Loyalty –Enlistments averaged 6 years (16 year max) –Soldiers swear allegiance to their general over the state of Rome –Proconsuls (governors of territories) gained virtually unlimited power –Head of Army less answerable to senate ROMAN MILITARY CHANGES AFTER THIRD PUNIC WAR

9 Slide 9 Caius Marius –Allowed proletarians (men with out land) to join legion –Improved training making full-time soldiers –Made the cohort his major tactical unit (vice the maniple) –Interval between cohorts decreased, resembling a phalanx –Ten Cohorts still made a Legion ROMAN MILITARY CHANGES AFTER THIRD PUNIC WAR

10 Slide 10 Greatest Roman political general Greatest Roman political general –Military Genius –Quick, sure judgment –Indomitable energy (Charisma) –Personal interest in his men –Willingness to under go every hardship his soldiers endured JULIUS CAESAR

11 Slide 11 JULIUS CAESAR –Age 40, set out to learn “Art of War” –61 - 60 B.C. - proconsul of Spain, suppressed barbarian uprisings –60 B.C. - formed 1st Triumvirate W/Pompey and Crassus –58 B.C. - Triumvirate appointed Caesar proconsul of Gaul –By 51 B.C. - expanded Roman power in Gaul, quelled all revolts

12 Slide 12 Caesar’s Legion Caesar’s Legion –Preceded by a Vanguard of cavalry and heavy foot –Main body plus baggage in center –Rear guard disposed for immediate action –Light infantry flank guards JULIUS CAESAR

13 Slide 13 The Civil War The Civil War –Crassus was killed in battle - 53 B.C. –Pompey, jealous of Caesar, had Senate pass law taking away Caesar’s political & Military power in March of 49 B.C. –Caesar then “Crossed the Rubicon” in Dec of 50 or Jan of 49 B.C. Act of War (By law needed senate consent to cross Rubicon (Italy north border) w/forces)Act of War (By law needed senate consent to cross Rubicon (Italy north border) w/forces) Caesar had previously only fought barbarians, now he would fight Roman legionsCaesar had previously only fought barbarians, now he would fight Roman legions JULIUS CAESAR

14 Slide 14 Popular sympathy was with Caesar Popular sympathy was with Caesar Pompey & Senate fled to Epitus (West coast of modern Greece) Pompey & Senate fled to Epitus (West coast of modern Greece) Caesar was in Rome in less than two months, master of all Italy Caesar was in Rome in less than two months, master of all Italy It took Caesar 5 years to defeat Pompey and his supporters It took Caesar 5 years to defeat Pompey and his supporters JULIUS CAESAR

15 Slide 15 Ilerda Campaign Ilerda Campaign –Initially two unsuccessful frontal assaults on Ilerda –Followed by harassment, marches, countermarches, cutting off supplies –Forces enemy into weak defensive position, then refused battle –Pursued and harassed enemy continually cutting off supplies –Again refused battle JULIUS CAESAR

16 Slide 16 Ilerda Campaign Ilerda Campaign –Made rapid countermarch to cut off enemy from retreat into Ebro defiles –Another rapid countermarch cuts off faltering enemy from obtaining water at Sigoris –Cuts off foes from their last resort of regaining the fortified camp at Ilerda JULIUS CAESAR

17 Slide 17 Ilerda Campaign Ilerda Campaign –Gained unconditional surrender –Gained respect by sparing Romans from slaughter and for his expert generalship –Offered 70,000 prisoners liberty and safe escort to Rome if they immediately enlisted in his ranks JULIUS CAESAR

18 Slide 18 Dyrrhachium Dyrrhachium –49 B.C. - Caesar had 12 legions @ Brundisium to seek out Pompey –Sailed for Greece Ships were scarce, only 7 legions initially (violated principle of mass?)Ships were scarce, only 7 legions initially (violated principle of mass?) Pompey controlled seaPompey controlled sea Mid-winter - Pompey less vigilant (surprise?)Mid-winter - Pompey less vigilant (surprise?) –Avoided Hostile Fleet, landed @ Palaeste –Ships returned for Mark Anthony & 20,000 men of his army JULIUS CAESAR

19 Slide 19 Apsus River Apsus River –Caesar & Pompey made contact –Pompey superior #’s, but inferior Quality –Neither wanted to take offensive Caesar - waiting for AnthonyCaesar - waiting for Anthony Pompey hoped his fleet would block Anthony, forcing Caesar to yieldPompey hoped his fleet would block Anthony, forcing Caesar to yield –Anthony landed north of Dyrrhachium –Pompey failed at preventing join-up –Pompey fell back to Dyrrhachium JULIUS CAESAR

20 Slide 20 Apsus River Apsus River –Caesar sent three legions for supplies and decided to contain Pompey –Both generals built lines (embankments) facing each other Caesar couldn’t totally blockade (Pompey controlled sea) Caesar couldn’t totally blockade (Pompey controlled sea) Pompey broke out along coast, then pursued Caesar for three daysPompey broke out along coast, then pursued Caesar for three days –Had Pompey pursued harder, history may have been different JULIUS CAESAR

21 Slide 21 Pharsalus Pharsalus –Caesar regrouped in Thessaly with about 30,000 infantry & 1,000 cavalry –Met Pompey with disadvantage in #’s (1:2 infantry, 1:3 or 4 cavalry) on plains of Pharsalus –Pompey’s plan: Secure his right flank along Enipeus RiverSecure his right flank along Enipeus River Use superior cavalry to flank Caesar on his right, sweep around and attack his rearUse superior cavalry to flank Caesar on his right, sweep around and attack his rear JULIUS CAESAR

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23 Slide 23 Pharsalus Pharsalus –Caesar grasped Pompey’s plan Brought up cavalry to face Pompey’s cavalryBrought up cavalry to face Pompey’s cavalry Took 3rd line from Infantry and formed 4th line behind Cavalry (decisive point)Took 3rd line from Infantry and formed 4th line behind Cavalry (decisive point) –Pompey left initiative Caesar launched counter attack; Pompey met with Cavalry, Archers, Slingers; Caesar had 4th line attack; 4th line had such vigor Pompey’s cavalry retreatedCaesar launched counter attack; Pompey met with Cavalry, Archers, Slingers; Caesar had 4th line attack; 4th line had such vigor Pompey’s cavalry retreated JULIUS CAESAR

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25 Slide 25 Pharsalus Pharsalus –Infantry now fully engaged –Caesar flanked Pompey on his left with 4th line –Caesar ordered 3rd Line (reserves) into fight (timely use of reserves) –Pompey fled and his forces surrendered in the hills after being surrounded JULIUS CAESAR

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27 Slide 27 Ruspina Ruspina –Africa, Oct 47 B.C., Caesar surrounded by superior force near Ruspina –Formed single line of cohorts in favor of protecting flanks –Single line was pushed together with cavalry in gaps –Faced alternating cohorts to rear forming two back to back lines and pushed out –Imaginative action salvaged defeat JULIUS CAESAR

28 Slide 28 Further operations in Africa/Spain were successful Further operations in Africa/Spain were successful Caesar assassinated 15 March, 44 B.C. Caesar assassinated 15 March, 44 B.C. JULIUS CAESAR

29 Slide 29 BATTLE OF ACTIUM Anthony and Cleopatra ruled from Egypt ~200 ships Anthony and Cleopatra ruled from Egypt ~200 ships Octavian Ruled from Rome had ~200 ships Octavian Ruled from Rome had ~200 ships Sea Battle conducted in Ionian Sea Sea Battle conducted in Ionian Sea Over 400 galleys and 80,000 men involved Over 400 galleys and 80,000 men involved

30 Slide 30 BATTLE OF ACTIUM

31 Slide 31 Deserters informed Octavian Deserters informed Octavian Anthony’s Fleet sailed out Anthony’s Fleet sailed out Agrippa formed up seaward and waited for the wind also Agrippa formed up seaward and waited for the wind also Separation of the Squadrons Separation of the Squadrons Anthony and Cleopatra defeated and betrayed, Anthony fled Anthony and Cleopatra defeated and betrayed, Anthony fled BATTLE OF ACTIUM

32 Slide 32 Established Roman Navy as the premier navy of the time Established Roman Navy as the premier navy of the time Combined with army to secure frontiers and to police Mediterranean Combined with army to secure frontiers and to police Mediterranean Octavian reaches Alexandria in July, 30 B.C. ; Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide Octavian reaches Alexandria in July, 30 B.C. ; Anthony and Cleopatra commit suicide Octavian takes the title of Caesar Augustus Octavian takes the title of Caesar Augustus BATTLE OF ACTIUM

33 Slide 33 PAX ROMANA The period from Caesar Augustus (27 B.C.) to the battle of Adrianople (378 A.D.) The period from Caesar Augustus (27 B.C.) to the battle of Adrianople (378 A.D.) Longest period of Longest period of peace Roman empire had experienced The Empire The Empire –Internally Pacified –Secure Frontiers

34 Slide 34 13 B.C. Augustus reduced the army of the Roman Empire to 25 Legions (about 300,000 soldiers) 13 B.C. Augustus reduced the army of the Roman Empire to 25 Legions (about 300,000 soldiers) In 6 A.D. he established a permanent retirement fund In 6 A.D. he established a permanent retirement fund Encouraged retired soldiers to settle in the provinces near their former legion Encouraged retired soldiers to settle in the provinces near their former legion 16 year tours (later 20 year enlistments) 16 year tours (later 20 year enlistments) PAX ROMANA

35 Slide 35 Defensively Orientated Defensively Orientated Cavalry Cavalry War Engines War Engines –By 4th Century 10 Catapults and 60 Ballistae were assigned to each legion –This is one of the highest rations of “guns” to soldiers in history PAX ROMANA

36 Slide 36 DECLINE OF ROME Riot accelerated by decline in farming Riot accelerated by decline in farming The small farms The small farms –Free peasants were forced to become coloni –Proved insufficient, barbarians invited to work Exhaustion of the soil Exhaustion of the soil Lack of Agriculture Lack of Agriculture –More people drifted into the cities –Unemployment

37 Slide 37 Professional politicians Professional politicians Reduced discipline and training Reduced discipline and training Increasing lack of confidence between commander and troops Increasing lack of confidence between commander and troops Sending units from one portion of the frontier to reinforce units engaged elsewhere Sending units from one portion of the frontier to reinforce units engaged elsewhere DECLINE OF ROME

38 Slide 38 THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE The Visigoths The Visigoths –Originally friendly to the empire –The local Roman officials allowed the Visigoths to retain their weapons in return for certain “favors” –For over a year the Roman officials abused the Goths The Emperor Valens The Emperor Valens Legion weakened by increasing number of light foot and cavalry Legion weakened by increasing number of light foot and cavalry

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40 Slide 40 Valens came upon the Gothsen camp Valens came upon the Gothsen camp He drew up his army He drew up his army Believing that all the enemy were inside the Laager, he attacked Believing that all the enemy were inside the Laager, he attacked THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE

41 Slide 41 The Bulk of the Gothic Horsemen were foraging The Bulk of the Gothic Horsemen were foraging As the battle raged, the Gothic horsemen charged down on the Roman left As the battle raged, the Gothic horsemen charged down on the Roman left The Roman cavalry disintegrated quickly The Roman cavalry disintegrated quickly The Roman right fled, and the infantry was slaughtered The Roman right fled, and the infantry was slaughtered THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE

42 Slide 42 THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE Valens and 40,000 infantry annihilated Valens and 40,000 infantry annihilated Battle of Adrianople signified the end of the Roman military tradition Battle of Adrianople signified the end of the Roman military tradition

43 Slide 43 Collapse of Rome Collapse of Rome A revolution in tactics A revolution in tactics –Cavalry was now the chief arm –Light Infantry would prepare and support the attack by their fire –Heavy infantry Base for defenseBase for defense Offense - ready reserveOffense - ready reserve THE BATTLE OF ADRIANOPLE

44 Slide 44 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Their were many changes to the Roman military after the Third Punic War Their were many changes to the Roman military after the Third Punic War Caesar won the civil wars against Pompey Caesar won the civil wars against Pompey Pax Romana was the longest period of peace in Rome, during this period the army was oriented to defense Pax Romana was the longest period of peace in Rome, during this period the army was oriented to defense Rome divides Rome divides

45 Slide 45 QUESTIONS?


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