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REVOLUTIONS OF 1830 AND 1848. What are the reasons for revolutions? Consider the causes of the French RevolutionConsider the causes of the French Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "REVOLUTIONS OF 1830 AND 1848. What are the reasons for revolutions? Consider the causes of the French RevolutionConsider the causes of the French Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 REVOLUTIONS OF 1830 AND 1848

2 What are the reasons for revolutions? Consider the causes of the French RevolutionConsider the causes of the French Revolution Consider the causes of the Latin American RevolutionsConsider the causes of the Latin American Revolutions

3 Liberty Leading the People

4 Where is this happening? How can you tell?Where is this happening? How can you tell? What has happened/is happening in the scene?What has happened/is happening in the scene? What is meant by Liberty leading the people?What is meant by Liberty leading the people?

5 Background to the 1830 Revolution Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI) regained the throne – What was the principle of restoring the rightful leaders back to power?Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI) regained the throne – What was the principle of restoring the rightful leaders back to power? What was the name of the famous conference after Napoleon’s time in power when leaders tried to get Europe back to normal?What was the name of the famous conference after Napoleon’s time in power when leaders tried to get Europe back to normal?

6 Louis XVIII and Liberal Reforms Approved a constitution – the Charter of French LibertiesApproved a constitution – the Charter of French Liberties Two-house legislature and limited freedom of the pressTwo-house legislature and limited freedom of the press

7 Charles X Takes the Throne Louis XVIII died in 1824; brother Charles X takes overLouis XVIII died in 1824; brother Charles X takes over Charles X believed in absolutism – What does this mean?Charles X believed in absolutism – What does this mean? What do you think he will do with the constitution? Why?What do you think he will do with the constitution? Why? Suspends the legislature and restricts the right to vote and limits freedom of the pressSuspends the legislature and restricts the right to vote and limits freedom of the press

8 Citizens Led the July Revolution Angry liberals and RADICALS (those favoring extreme change) took to the streetsAngry liberals and RADICALS (those favoring extreme change) took to the streets “To the barricades!”“To the barricades!” Fired on soldiers and pelted them with stones and roof tilesFired on soldiers and pelted them with stones and roof tiles The revolutionary tri-color flag flew from the towers of Notre Dame cathedralThe revolutionary tri-color flag flew from the towers of Notre Dame cathedral Charles X fled to EnglandCharles X fled to England

9 The “Citizen King” Rules France Radicals wanted to establish a republicRadicals wanted to establish a republic Moderate liberals chose a constitutional monarchyModerate liberals chose a constitutional monarchy Louis Philippe, cousin of Charles X chosen, because during his youth, he supported the 1789 French RevolutionLouis Philippe, cousin of Charles X chosen, because during his youth, he supported the 1789 French Revolution Louis Philippe got along with the liberal bourgeoisieLouis Philippe got along with the liberal bourgeoisie Louis’ policies favored the wealthy – the majority of people could still not voteLouis’ policies favored the wealthy – the majority of people could still not vote

10 Louis Philippe – The “Citizen King” He supported the 1789 RevolutionHe supported the 1789 Revolution Later in his career, his government was marked by corruption and greedLater in his career, his government was marked by corruption and greed

11 Louis Philippe as Gargantua mons/1/15/Honor%C3%A9_Daumier_- _Gargantua.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com mons/1/15/Honor%C3%A9_Daumier_- _Gargantua.jpg

12 The Spirit of Reform Spreads Metternich – Austrian foreign ministerMetternich – Austrian foreign minister “When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.”“When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.” Ex. Belgian independenceEx. Belgian independence Belgium had been united with Holland and was ruled by the Dutch kingBelgium had been united with Holland and was ruled by the Dutch king Belgian bourgeoisie resented that (Belgians spoke different language and had different religion)Belgian bourgeoisie resented that (Belgians spoke different language and had different religion)

13 Belgium Gains Independence 1830 Uprising in Paris inspired Belgians – they can do it too! Yes we can!1830 Uprising in Paris inspired Belgians – they can do it too! Yes we can! Belgians took up arms against Dutch troops in BrusselsBelgians took up arms against Dutch troops in Brussels Britain and France believed they would benefit from the separation of Belgium and Holland – supported the Belgian demand for independenceBritain and France believed they would benefit from the separation of Belgium and Holland – supported the Belgian demand for independence 1831 – Belgium becomes independent and has a liberal constitution1831 – Belgium becomes independent and has a liberal constitution

14 Rebels Fail in Poland In the late 1700s, Poland was divided among Russia, Prussia, and AustriaIn the late 1700s, Poland was divided among Russia, Prussia, and Austria The Poles hoped to regain their independence at the Congress of ViennaThe Poles hoped to regain their independence at the Congress of Vienna It didn’t happen. Instead most of it went to RussiaIt didn’t happen. Instead most of it went to Russia In 1830, Polish students, army officers, and landowners rose in revolt.In 1830, Polish students, army officers, and landowners rose in revolt. They failed to get enough support and the Russian brutally crushed the revolt.They failed to get enough support and the Russian brutally crushed the revolt.

15 The French Revolt Again in 1848 Radicals such as Utopian Socialists wanted the end of private propertyRadicals such as Utopian Socialists wanted the end of private property Louis Philippe’s government was corruptLouis Philippe’s government was corrupt Recession caused unemploymentRecession caused unemployment Poor harvests – bread prices rosePoor harvests – bread prices rose February 1848 – government tried to limit people’s freedom to assemble and express their frustrationFebruary 1848 – government tried to limit people’s freedom to assemble and express their frustration

16 1848 Revolt in Paris People took to the barricades and clashed with royal troopsPeople took to the barricades and clashed with royal troops Louis Philippe abdicatedLouis Philippe abdicated Liberal, radical, and socialist leaders proclaimed the Second Republic (the first was from 1792 – 1804 when Napoleon became emperor)Liberal, radical, and socialist leaders proclaimed the Second Republic (the first was from 1792 – 1804 when Napoleon became emperor)

17 The Second Republic Was Deeply Divided Middle-class liberals wanted moderate political reformsMiddle-class liberals wanted moderate political reforms Socialists wanted major changesSocialists wanted major changes Forced the government to set up national workshops to provide jobs for the unemployedForced the government to set up national workshops to provide jobs for the unemployed Bourgeois liberals gained greater control of the government and shut down the workshopsBourgeois liberals gained greater control of the government and shut down the workshops

18 More Fighting in Paris in 1848 Angry workers rioted in the streetsAngry workers rioted in the streets Bourgeois liberals commanded the army to put down the riot – 1,500 people died in fightingBourgeois liberals commanded the army to put down the riot – 1,500 people died in fighting Peasants turned against the workers because they feared that as socialists, they would want to confiscate their landPeasants turned against the workers because they feared that as socialists, they would want to confiscate their land A bitter legacy – middle-class distrusted the socialists and the workers hated the bourgeoisieA bitter legacy – middle-class distrusted the socialists and the workers hated the bourgeoisie

19 A New Napoleon Comes to Power The National Assembly was dominated by members who wanted to restore orderThe National Assembly was dominated by members who wanted to restore order It created a strong president and one house legislatureIt created a strong president and one house legislature Extended voting rights to all adult men – widest suffrage in Europe – 9 million Frenchmen could vote compared with only 200,000 beforeExtended voting rights to all adult men – widest suffrage in Europe – 9 million Frenchmen could vote compared with only 200,000 before

20 A New Napoleon Comes to Power Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon is electedLouis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon is elected The working class supported the new Napoleon – sympathetic to povertyThe working class supported the new Napoleon – sympathetic to poverty The conservatives supported him – famous family name, hoping to regain glory daysThe conservatives supported him – famous family name, hoping to regain glory days 1852 – crowned himself Napoleon III – end of the Second Republic and beginning of Second Empire1852 – crowned himself Napoleon III – end of the Second Republic and beginning of Second Empire Used a plebiscite (vote of the people) to uphold this power play – 90% of voters supported his move to establish the Second EmpireUsed a plebiscite (vote of the people) to uphold this power play – 90% of voters supported his move to establish the Second Empire

21 The New Napoleon Economy recovered in 1850s – bourgeoisie were happyEconomy recovered in 1850s – bourgeoisie were happy

22 Revolution Surges Through Europe 1848 – Revolution in Paris set off revolutions around Europe1848 – Revolution in Paris set off revolutions around Europe Grievances had been piling upGrievances had been piling up Middle-class liberals wanted greater political rightsMiddle-class liberals wanted greater political rights Workers demanded relief from miseries of Industrial RevolutionWorkers demanded relief from miseries of Industrial Revolution Nationalists wanted independence from foreign ruleNationalists wanted independence from foreign rule

23

24 What countries on the map experienced uprisings/revolutions?What countries on the map experienced uprisings/revolutions?

25 Austrian Revolution Revolts in major citiesRevolts in major cities Remember Metternich? For what famous event was he the chief organizer?Remember Metternich? For what famous event was he the chief organizer? Metternich censored newspapers but books were smuggled into universitiesMetternich censored newspapers but books were smuggled into universities Workers and students took control of the streets in ViennaWorkers and students took control of the streets in Vienna Metternich resigned and fled in disguiseMetternich resigned and fled in disguise

26 Conclusion “You say you want a revolution. Well you know. We all want to change the world. You say you want a constitution. Well, you know. We all want to change the world.”“You say you want a revolution. Well you know. We all want to change the world. You say you want a constitution. Well, you know. We all want to change the world.” Who said this?Who said this? What caused the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848? Long-term causes? Short- term causes?What caused the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848? Long-term causes? Short- term causes?


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