4Where is this happening? How can you tell? What has happened/is happening in the scene?What is meant by Liberty leading the people?
5Background to the 1830 Revolution Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI) regained the throne – What was the principle of restoring the rightful leaders back to power?What was the name of the famous conference after Napoleon’s time in power when leaders tried to get Europe back to normal?
6Louis XVIII and Liberal Reforms Approved a constitution – the Charter of French LibertiesTwo-house legislature and limited freedom of the press
7Charles X Takes the Throne Louis XVIII died in 1824; brother Charles X takes overCharles X believed in absolutism – What does this mean?What do you think he will do with the constitution? Why?Suspends the legislature and restricts the right to vote and limits freedom of the press
8Citizens Led the July Revolution Angry liberals and RADICALS (those favoring extreme change) took to the streets“To the barricades!”Fired on soldiers and pelted them with stones and roof tilesThe revolutionary tri-color flag flew from the towers of Notre Dame cathedralCharles X fled to England
9The “Citizen King” Rules France Radicals wanted to establish a republicModerate liberals chose a constitutional monarchyLouis Philippe, cousin of Charles X chosen, because during his youth, he supported the 1789 French RevolutionLouis Philippe got along with the liberal bourgeoisieLouis’ policies favored the wealthy – the majority of people could still not vote
10Louis Philippe – The “Citizen King” He supported the 1789 RevolutionLater in his career, his government was marked by corruption and greed
12The Spirit of Reform Spreads Metternich – Austrian foreign minister“When France sneezes, Europe catches cold.”Ex. Belgian independenceBelgium had been united with Holland and was ruled by the Dutch kingBelgian bourgeoisie resented that (Belgians spoke different language and had different religion)
13Belgium Gains Independence 1830 Uprising in Paris inspired Belgians – they can do it too! Yes we can!Belgians took up arms against Dutch troops in BrusselsBritain and France believed they would benefit from the separation of Belgium and Holland – supported the Belgian demand for independence1831 – Belgium becomes independent and has a liberal constitution
14Rebels Fail in PolandIn the late 1700s, Poland was divided among Russia, Prussia, and AustriaThe Poles hoped to regain their independence at the Congress of ViennaIt didn’t happen. Instead most of it went to RussiaIn 1830, Polish students, army officers, and landowners rose in revolt.They failed to get enough support and the Russian brutally crushed the revolt.
15The French Revolt Again in 1848 Radicals such as Utopian Socialists wanted the end of private propertyLouis Philippe’s government was corruptRecession caused unemploymentPoor harvests – bread prices roseFebruary 1848 – government tried to limit people’s freedom to assemble and express their frustration
161848 Revolt in ParisPeople took to the barricades and clashed with royal troopsLouis Philippe abdicatedLiberal, radical, and socialist leaders proclaimed the Second Republic (the first was from 1792 – 1804 when Napoleon became emperor)
17The Second Republic Was Deeply Divided Middle-class liberals wanted moderate political reformsSocialists wanted major changesForced the government to set up national workshops to provide jobs for the unemployedBourgeois liberals gained greater control of the government and shut down the workshops
18More Fighting in Paris in 1848 Angry workers rioted in the streetsBourgeois liberals commanded the army to put down the riot – 1,500 people died in fightingPeasants turned against the workers because they feared that as socialists, they would want to confiscate their landA bitter legacy – middle-class distrusted the socialists and the workers hated the bourgeoisie
19A New Napoleon Comes to Power The National Assembly was dominated by members who wanted to restore orderIt created a strong president and one house legislatureExtended voting rights to all adult men – widest suffrage in Europe – 9 million Frenchmen could vote compared with only 200,000 before
20A New Napoleon Comes to Power Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon is electedThe working class supported the new Napoleon – sympathetic to povertyThe conservatives supported him – famous family name, hoping to regain glory days1852 – crowned himself Napoleon III – end of the Second Republic and beginning of Second EmpireUsed a plebiscite (vote of the people) to uphold this power play – 90% of voters supported his move to establish the Second Empire
21The New NapoleonEconomy recovered in 1850s – bourgeoisie were happy
22Revolution Surges Through Europe 1848 – Revolution in Paris set off revolutions around EuropeGrievances had been piling upMiddle-class liberals wanted greater political rightsWorkers demanded relief from miseries of Industrial RevolutionNationalists wanted independence from foreign rule
24What countries on the map experienced uprisings/revolutions?
25Austrian Revolution Revolts in major cities Remember Metternich? For what famous event was he the chief organizer?Metternich censored newspapers but books were smuggled into universitiesWorkers and students took control of the streets in ViennaMetternich resigned and fled in disguise
26Conclusion“You say you want a revolution. Well you know. We all want to change the world. You say you want a constitution. Well, you know. We all want to change the world.”Who said this?What caused the Revolutions of 1830 and 1848? Long-term causes? Short-term causes?