3Alexander’s First Moves After Alexander was proclaimed King, he had a number of immediate problems to solve, first inside Macedonia, then in the rest of Greece:He killed all rivals to the throne, including 2 of the 3 Lyncestian brothers (see Artus, pg.16) and Amyntas (son of Philip’s elder brother). Attalus was also killed.All Greece was in revolt. He first went south, where he outwitted the Thessalians to gain their support. Athens and the other southern states acclaimed him as Philip’s successor.He then needed to go north, to deal with revolts in Illyria.While in the north, there were rumours that he had been killed. Thebes again revolted, with support from Athens.Alexander laid siege to Thebes and defeated it. (see next slide)
4The Sack of ThebesOne of Alexander’s first ‘Acts of Cruelty’. Use Hamilton (p.48-49) to note:The reasons why Thebes decided to revoltWhat happened before Alexander attacked the city.What happened at the end of the battle.How and why the League of Corinth dealt with Thebes.Why Hamilton calls this “a calculated act of terrorism”. (Is this fair?)
6Hypaspists (Royal Guards) Alexander’s ArmyThessalian CavalryLed by Parmenio (2iC)Left-WingLargely defensivePhalanx12000 men, led by Craterus and CoenusCentre of ArmyFought close together with sarissae and locked shieldsHypaspists (Royal Guards)3000 menProtected RHS of phalanxProvided link between Phalanx and Companion CavalryCompanion CavalryLed by Alexander / PhilotasRight-WingMain attacking force
8The Conquest of Asia Minor TroyGranicus River (334BC)GordiumMiletusHalicarnassusIssus(333BC)Tarsusmap:
9Before the Granicus Battle Memnon’s Advice to Persian satraps:Adopt a ‘scorched earth’ policy:RetreatDestroy crops as they goWait for reinforcements.
10Before the Granicus Battle Parmenio’s Advice to Alexander:Don’t attack immediatelyWait for dawnPersians will retreat from riverMacedonians won’t have to fight up steep river banksAbove: The Granicus River today – not much to look at.
11Persians strengthen their left The Granicus BattlePhase One:Alex lines up on rightPersians strengthen their left
12The Granicus Battle Phase Two: Macedonians cross river Amyntas’ cavalry attacks diagonally to rightPersians move to their left
13The Granicus Battle Phase Three: Alex leads Companions attack diagonally to the leftPersian line is brokenGreek Mercenaries killed / captured
14The Primary Sources on the Battle ““It seemed the act of a desperate madman rather than of a prudent commander to charge into a swiftly flowing river …” - PlutarchThe impact of the phalanx assault“But the enemy hardly sustaining the first onset, soon gave ground and fled, all but the mercenary Greeks” – PlutarchAlexander nearly killed by Persian satrap“But as he was about to repeat his stroke, Cleitus, called the black Cleitus, prevented him, by running him through the body with his spear.” - PlutarchAlexander’s ruthless killing of the Greek mercenaries at Granicus“Ordering a combined assault by infantry and cavalry, Alexander quickly had them surrounded and butchered to a man, though one or two may have escaped notice among the heaps of dead. About 2,000 were taken prisoner.” - Arrian
16The Conquest of Asia Minor TroyGranicus River (334BC)GordiumMiletusHalicarnassusCheck with students that they recall the significance of the sieges of Miletus and HalicarnassusIssus(333BC)Tarsusmap:
17Miletus and Halicarnassus Read the ‘Course of Events’ sections of the sieges of Miletus and Halicarnassus. What is the main reason why Alexander could take Miletus relatively easily, while he struggled to overcome Halicarnassus?
18The Conquest of Asia Minor Disbanding The FleetMiletusHalicarnassusGordiumGranicus River (334BC)TarsusIssus(333BC)The Conquest of Asia Minormap:TroyUse Artus pages 44 & 46 and Hamilton page 60 to fill out the notes on this event.
19‘Liberating’ of Soli and Mallus From Gordium to MallusCilician GatesTarsusPhilip the Arcananian‘Liberating’ of Soli and MallusGames in SoliAbove: The Cilician Gates were a very narrow pass – in Alexander’s time it was said that you could not pass a loaded camel through here!Image:
20This turned out to Alexander’s advantage! Before the Battle of IssusAlexander’s Mistake:Wrong intelligence about Darius’ positionHeads south down coast to meet PersiansDarius circled from North-East, cutting off Alex’s supply linesAlex decides to turn and fight over Pinarus RiverThis turned out to Alexander’s advantage!
21The Battle of Issus 1. Darius stood firm behind the Pinarus river PHASE 3Advancing across uneven ground, the phalanx broke up, allowing Persians to break through into gap.Meanwhile, Alexander charged toward Darius, defeating most of his personal guard.Under threat of death or capture, Darius turned and fled from battle.PHASE 4Darius’s retreat caused a general retreat amongst PersiansAlexander did not initially follow, as his phalanx was still in disarray.Parmenio ordered a counter-attack, which turned the Persian cavalry around – many were killed.PHASE 2Alex led Companions against cardacesCavalry on mountain side attacked Persian light troopsPersians on seaside attacked, putting Parmenio’s Thessalians under pressure.
23Alexander won and Darius lost due to… Success and Failure at IssusAlexander won and Darius lost due to…The geography of the battle meant Darius could not spread his forces and outflank Alexander (ie. luck!).Superior training and discipline of Macedonians, particularly the phalanx.The ability of Alexander to spot weakness in the Persian line.Alexander’s calculated risk that an attack on Darius would prove decisive.
24The Primary Sources on the Battle Darius’s advisors flattery: “First one, then another of them blew up the bladder of his conceit by saying that the Persian cavalry would ride over the Macedonian army and trample it to pieces.” - Arrian“God himself… by suggesting to Darius to leave the open ground and cram his army into a confined space, has taken charge of operations in our behalf ” – Arrian“Spotting the worst breach in the Macedonian phalanx, the Greeks [mercenaries fighting for Persia] attacked. The action there was desperate, as the Greeks tried to drive the Macedonians back to the river… while the Macedonians, eager not to fall short of Alexander, whose success was already apparent, tried to preserve the good name of the phalanx. - Arrian[Walking through Darius’ palatial tent and observing all the luxuries the Persian King travelled with] He turned to his companions and remarked: “So this, it seems, is what it is to be a king.” - Plutarch
25Why was this victory so important for Alexander? The Aftermath of IssusWhy was this victory so important for Alexander?Alexander gained a major psychological advantage from his first victory over Darius.Phoenicia was opened to Alexander and his conquests in Asia Minor secure.Darius lost a large number of his best troopsAlexander captured the Persian royal familyAlexander could proclaim himself the ‘Lord of Asia’.
26The Conquest of Asia Minor Importance of Alexander’s Successes up to 333BC
28The Siege of TyreUse Artus (page 51) and Hamilton (pages 71-73) to complete the notes on this 7 month siege.
29Problems and Solutions The Siege of TyreCourse of the Siege –Problems and Solutions800m to New CityConstruction of CausewayAttacks on engineers building causeway50m Siege Towers constructed with catapultsFireship destroyed siege towers and causewayBuilt more towers and another causewayIt was difficult for Alex to blockade the harbourTyrian part of Persian navy changed sidesDefenders cut ships mooring ropesMooring chains usedCity walls were thickRams and Catapults mounted on ships
30The Primary Sources on the Battle “To this Tyrian Heracles, Alexander said he wished to offer sacrifice. But when this message was brought to Tyre by the ambassadors, the people passed a decree to obey any other command of Alexander, but not to admit into the city any Persian or Macedonian; thinking that under the existing circumstances … that it would be the safest course for them to pursue in reference to the issue of the war, which was still uncertain.” - Arrian“The king himself climbed the highest siege-tower [which was full of catapults and other siege-engines]. His courage was great, but the danger greater for, conspicuous in his royal insignia and flashing armour, he was the prime target of enemy missiles.” – Curtius Rufus“The extent of the bloodshed can be judged from the fact that 6,000 fighting-men were slaughtered within the city's fortifications. It was a sad spectacle that the furious king then provided for the victors: 2,000 Tyrians, who had survived the rage of the tiring Macedonians, now hung nailed to crosses all along the huge expanse of the beach.” – Curtius Rufus
31Use this slide to ask questions about Alexander’s character – what was he like and what evidence can we provide. If possible (depending whether or not you can point your data projector at your whiteboard), get students to write points around Alexander figure.
32Egypt Welcomes Alexander Three stops:Memphis (Cairo)AlexandriaSiwah
35The Battle of Gaugamela - Background From his camp, Alexander could see:He was outnumbered at least 5 to 1Darius had prepared the battlefield to suit the Persians.Parmenio’s Advice:Attack at night to surprise PersiansAlexander’s Response:“I will not steal victory like a thief”(Arrian)
36The Battle of Gaugamela – Orders Prior to Battle “Get a good sleep tonight – we attack in the morning”“Stay alert tonight for a sneak attack.”
37Cavalry and Infantry under satrap Bessus The Battle of Gaugamela – Positioning of TroopsPersian Centre:Darius with bodyguard of spearmen and horsemen, Gk Mercenaries, Indian Cavalry.In front were elephants and scythe chariots.Persian Right:Massive group of cavalry under satrap MazaeusPersian Left:Cavalry and Infantry under satrap Bessus
38Extra Gk cavalry on right to protect flank The Battle of Gaugamela – Positioning of TroopsMacedonian Centre:Phalanx on oblique angleHypaspistsExtra phalanx with orders to face the rear if encircled.Macedonian Left:Thessalian Cavalry under ParmenioExtra Gk cavalry on left to protect flankMacedonian Right:Companion cavalryExtra Gk cavalry on right to protect flank
40The Course of the Battle 6. Parmenio was hard pressed by Mazaeus and called for help. Alex did not chase after Darius but moved to assist Parmenio. He came across Persians trying to escape. Many Companions were killed in this fight.3. Darius ordered a general offensive. Mazaeus was launched against Parmenio’s wing and the rest of the cavalry were sent to help Bessus on Alexander’s right.5. Darius decided that the battle was lost and fled. On his left, Bessus and the Bactrian cavalry followed.1. Alex advanced to the right edge of the battlefield. Darius launched a cavalry attack to stop this.4. This caused a gap to open in the Persian line, to the left of the centre. Alexander, waiting for this opportunity, charged towards Darius7. By the time Alexander was able to get to Parmenio’s side he was no longer needed. Mazaeus escaped, pursued by Thessalians2. Darius’ elephants and scythe-chariots attacked but they were stopped by lancers and ‘corridors’ created by the phalanx.
41The Battle of Gaugamela – The Significance of the Victory For Alexander:He was ‘Lord of Asia’ at 25He had destroyed Darius’s army and powerHe had access to the key cities of the Persian Empire, including the vast wealth of the Persians.For Darius:He lost almost all power and prestigeHe continued to flee from Alexander, until he was killed in Northern Persia in 329BC
42Ordering his troops to rest the night before is good man management. Alexander’s Military ExpertiseOrdering his troops to rest the night before is good man management.Positioning of the troops shows anticipation of a difficult situation where being outflanked was a strong possibility.Diagonal movement towards edge of battlefield shows cunning through anticipation of Darius’s response.Splitting of phalanx to deal with scythe chariots shows how well-drilled Alex’s troops were.Decisive charge shows Alex’s ability to seize his opportunity to make a decisive break.Decision not to pursue Darius is wise, because of need to preserve his own army.Summary: Victory at Gaugamela was against enormous odds. This battle shows the full range of Alex’s skills as a general.
43Into the Heart of the Empire Watch the clip of Alexander’s arrival in Babylon. What impressions does this give of a) The Macedonians and b) The Persians?
44External Problems Internal Problems Troubles in Northern PersiaChasing Darius, then his killers Bessus, Narbarzanes and Barsaentes.Fighting rebellious satraps including Spitemenes.Travelling through unfamiliar mountains in extreme weather.ExternalProblemsUnhappy Macedonians:ð Conspiracy of Philotasð Murder of Cleitusð Conspiracy of the Pagesð An Endless Quest?InternalProblems
45Pursuing DariusAfter Gaugamela, Alexander pursued Darius for several months into northern Persia.Darius was killed by Bessus (one of his generals) in 329BC and left by the side of the road. Alexander continued to pursue Bessus, the general who now claimed he was ‘The Great King’.Darius’ murder took place here
47The Provinces of Bactria and Sogdia Because the army was now fighting smaller battles in mountainous terrain, Alexander split his army into smaller units, disbanding his phalanx units and discarding the sarissae.He captured Bessus in 328BC and had him executed, Persian style.The rebellious satrap Spitemenes was eventually defeated after leading a guerrilla campaign against Alexander.Other military campaigns in these provinces:Capturing the Sogdian Rock 327BCMassacring Indian tribesmenCapturing the Rock of Aornus 326BCMurder of CleitusPages Conspiracy
48The Sogdian RockUse the clip from In the Footsteps of Alexander to answer the following questions:1. What was it about the Sogdian Rock that made it supposedly impenetrable?2. How did Alexander overcome the challenge of the Sogdians to find “soldiers who can fly”?
49Alexander Gets Married! After the capture of the Sogdian Rock, Alexander fell in love with Roxane the daughter of Oxyartes, the local satrap. They were married in a traditional Persian ceremony.Question: Was it Love or Politics?The picture of the ceremony is from a later Indian source.
50The Rock of AornusUse the clip from In the Footsteps of Alexander to answer the following questions:1. What Greek legend existed about the Rock of Aornus / Pir Sar?2. Why would Alexander want to conquer the rock?3. What difficulties did he overcome?4. What does this episode say about Alexander’s character?
52The Battle of Jhelum (Hydaspes) 326BC Above: Battle elephants were an important part of the Indian King Porus’ army.Left: An almost incomprehensible map of the battle.
53The Battle of Jhelum (Hydaspes) 326BC Tricking Porus (The Indian King) Alexander pretended to cross several times at various crossing pointsCraterus was left at camp with a large force, instructed to fake another crossing.Meanwhile, Alex would lead the real crossing 17 miles to the north.
54The Battle of Jhelum (Hydaspes) 326BC Crossing the River Heavy rain and thunder in the night helped conceal Alex’s movementsThe weather eased in the morning, so Alex could begin crossing.Alex disembarked,but was shocked to realise that they were only on an island half way across.Alex’s force quickly crossed in chin-deep water and formed up for battle.
55The Battle of Jhelum (Hydaspes) 326BC What helped Alex? Porus did not believe Alex’s force was the main attack. So he sent his son with a small force, that engaged the Macedonians and was wiped out.Soon after Porus arrived for the battle proper.
56The Return to BabylonOn the journey south down the River Indus, Alexander was responsible for several massacres in villages of the Mallian people.Then in an attack on a Mallian village, Alexander was seriously wounded by an arrow through the lungs. His men believed he was dead, until he was paraded before them lying in a litter.Having reached the Indus delta, Alexander sent the navy under Nearcus to go by sea, while he took the army by land across the Gedrosian Desert. This proved to be a terrible mistake, as the Navy was forced to resort to piracy, while an estimated 40,000 men died in the desert.The Gedrosian DesertPic:
58Military strategy and tactics are essential to the conduct of warfare Military strategy and tactics are essential to the conduct of warfare. Broadly stated, strategy is the planning, coordination, and general direction of military operations to meet overall political and military objectives. Tactics implement strategy by short-term decisions on the movement of troops and employment of weapons on the field of battle. The great military theorist Carl von Clausewitz put it another way: "Tactics is the art of using troops in battle; strategy is the art of using battles to win the war."strategy and tactics In warfare, related terms referring, respectively, to large-scale and small-scale planning to achieve military success. Strategy may be defined as the general scheme of the conduct of a war, tactics as the planning of means to achieve strategic objectives. Karl von Clausewitz, the Prussian military theorist, who was influenced by Niccolo Machiavelli, described strategy as the planning of a whole campaign and tactics as the planning of a single battle. Antoine H. Jomini, an influential Swiss military theorist and general, regarded strategy as the art of moving forces to the field of battle and tactics as the conduct of forces in battle. Another school views strategy as a means of bringing the enemy to battle and tactics as the means of defeating him in battle.
59The Granicus Battle 3 PERSIAN CAVALRY 2 1 1 RIVER GRANICUS GREEK MERCENARIES32RIVER GRANICUS11PHALANX (6 BATTALIONS)THESSALIAN CAVALRYCOMPANION CAVALRYADDITIONAL CAVALRYHYPASPISTS