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Understanding Tibet in Time and Space UROP China Project Group.

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Tibet in Time and Space UROP China Project Group."— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Tibet in Time and Space UROP China Project Group

2 OUTLINE 1. Introduction 2. Natural Resources 3. Population 4. Culture and Education 5. Economy 6. Environment 7. Data Sources

3 1. Introduction

4 1.1 Tibet’s Landscape Tibet – the Last Clean Land on the Earth

5 1.2 Tibet’s Location Tibet is in plateau region and located at the west of Yangtze river watershed It is home to indigenous Tibetan and people from other 43 ethnic groups

6 1.3 Some Facts about Tibet Language  Tibetic Language with numerous dialects Area size  12.284 million sq meters Population  2.81 million ( at the end of 2006 ) Capital City  Lhasa Religion  Tibetan Buddhism  Islam Elevation  Average 4,900 meters (app. 16,000 ft)

7 Elevation and Yangtze Watershed

8 1.4 Tibet’s History In 1700s and 1800s, the Chinese government appointed Ambans, or Residents, as the Tibet Governors In 1914, Simla Convention signed by Tibet and British India with Tibet as an autonomous region of China, which, however, has never been accepted by the Chinese government Before 1950, political and religious power was centralized in the hand of the DalaiLama, with the best agricultural land of Tibet controlled by Lamaist monasteries In 1950, the new Chinese government took control of Tibet In 1954, China and India signed a treaty that accepted Chinese sovereignty in Tibet In 1959, 14 th Dalai Lama Fled to India after Lhasa Rebellion was suppressed by the Chinese government In 1979, China opened Tibet to foreign tourists On July 1st, 2006, Qing-Zang railway (1956 km) started the operation -Largely Isolated from other parts of China until the1950s -Has never been recognized by any country as an independent state (Veek, Pannell, Smith and Huang, 2008. China’s Geography)

9 Changes in Geography: Qing-Zang Railway (Xining) (Qinghai Lake) (Gomud) (Mt.Kunlun) (Budongquan) (Wudaolian) (Tuotuo River) (Mt.Tanggula) (Anduo) (Naqiu) (Dangxiong) (Lhasa) (Yangbajin) (Kekexili) (Tuotuo River) (Nam Lake) (Mt. Nianqingtanggula) 1.5 Changes in Tibet

10 2. Natural Resources

11 2.1 Rich in Natural Resources Tibet has…  World’s greatest alpine plants  Plateau-dwelling wild animals  Prime source of Asia's great rivers  Loftiest mountains  World's most extensive plateau  Ancient forests  Deep untouched valleys

12 2.2 Land Resources by Prefectures Prefecture Arable land Forest land Natural pasture Barren land Area%Area%Area%Area Lhasa55.5315.4101.330.82 117.793.27502.24 Changdu72.1820.022 976.7023.537 061.0710.92 886.00 Shannan63.7417.683 059.4924.183 187.514.921 188.25 Shigatse135.5237.59219.971.7412 617.1419.474 208.52 Naqu6.021.67220.91.7520 858.0832.1916 602.11 Ali1.760.490016 906.7626.099 084.19 Linzhi25.87.166 073.6148.012 048.383.162 531.72 Tibet in total360.5610012 651.9810064 796.7210037 003.03

13 2.3 Spatial Distribution of Natural Resource

14 3. Population

15 3.1 Population of Tibet Total population : approximately 2.81 million in 2006 Population Density : 2.03 people per sq km in average Age Distribution: 31.2% (0-14 years old), 64% (14-65 years old), 4.8% (65- above) Dependency Ratio : 56.1% (Yangtze River average = 44.2%) Annual Population Growth: 11.7 ‰, with birth rate of 17.4 ‰ and death rate of 5.7 ‰ in 2006 Agricultural Population: 91.6%, highest among Yangtze River regions Urban Population: 8.4%, lowest among Yangtze River regions

16 Total Population by Counties Population Per County of Tibet in 2000 (Unit: Person)


18 3.2 Natural Population Growth

19 3.3 Population Changes of Tibet

20 4. Culture and Education

21 4.1 Tibetan Ethnicity Consists of 44 ethnic groups: 93% Tibetan ( 藏族) 6.1% Han (汉族) % of ethnic population in Tibet among all of their population in China : 95% Monba ( 门巴族) 91% Lhoba ( 珞巴族) 45% Tibetan (藏族)

22 4.2 Tibet Religion Bön Tibetan Buddhism  Nyingma  Kagyu  Sakya  Gelug Tibetan Muslims (Kachee) 扎什伦布寺, 日喀则市,1447- Tashilhunpo Monastery, Shigatse Tangka 唐卡艺术

23 4.3 Education All expenses of boarding schools up to 9 years education are covered by the government


25 Average Years at Schools by Counties Average years at schools per county of Tibet in 2000 (Unit: Year)

26 Illiterate Population for Age 15 and Over Illiterate population for age 15 and over per county of Tibet in 2000 (Unit: Year)

27 5. Economy

28 5.1 Economic Development

29 5.2 Industry of Tibet Modern industries in Tibet were close to non-existent prior to 1950 Industrial development finally surfaced in the late 1950s with the opening of several factories in Lhasa and the establishment of a hydroelectric power facility By 1980, the economy was centered around tourism and agricultural industries Has seen gradual industrial growth during the late 20 th Century, but still is one of the least prosperous provinces in China

30 5.3 Agriculture of Tibet Limited, but developing forestry Important crops  Barley  Wheat  Beans  Dairy Products

31 Agricultural Regions Employed population in Farming, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery per county of Tibet in 2000 (Unit: Person)

32 Agricultural Output

33 6. Environment

34 6.1 Environmental Impact The increase in passenger traffic will result in greater tourism and economic activity on the Tibetan Plateau. The railway would make coal, which is not produced in Tibet, an affordable replacement. However, the increase in fuel combustion due to increased human activity in an already-thin atmosphere may affect the long term health of the local population.

35 6.2 Environmental Concerns Grassland Degradation Endangered Wildlife Deforestation Potential Water Pollution

36 ENDANGERED BIRDS  Tibetan eared phesant  Snow patridge  Sclater’s monal pheasant  Tibetan snowcock  Satyr tragopan Black crane  Red-headed trogon  Koslow bunting  Calandra lark  Blyth’s Tragopan  Wood snipe  Rufous-necked hornbill  Black-tailed godwit  Golden eagle  Saker falcon  Spoonbill  Brahminy kite  Tibetan patridege  Tibetan sand grouse

37 ENDANGERED MAMMALS OF TIBET  Rhesus macaque  Shou (Red Deer)  Snow leopard  Himalayan Tahr  Black bear  Goral  Kyang (Tibetan wild ass)  Lynx  Tibetan Argali Sheep  Takin  Tibetan Antelope  Otter  Tibetan Wild Yak  Blue-sheep (bhharal)  Ibex  Red panda  Siberian Tiger  White-lipped Deer

38 6.3 Global Climatic Effects Tibet influences the global weather pattern by affecting the flow of jet streams over the Tibetan Plateau. Loss of forest and grassland cover of the plateau will affect pacific typhoons and also cause the El Nino effect which altogether affect the weather pattern of Europe, North America, Peru, India and China.

39 Challenges under Global Changes Cultural diversity Biological diversity Globalization of economy Technology innovation Climate changes

40 7. Data Sources

41 7.1 Data Sources for Tibet Studies Government Statistics Survey Data (rural, urban, enterprise, market) Census Data (population, basic units, agriculture) GIS Data (administrative boundaries, roads, rivers, land, elevation,….) Remote Sensing Data


43 7.2 Tibet Census Data with GIS Maps - The 2000 Tibet Township Population Census Data with GIS Maps - The 2000 Tibet County Population Census Data with GIS maps - The 2000 Tibet Province Population Census Data with GIS Maps - The Tibet Historical Population Census Data with GIS Maps (1953, 1964, 1982, 1990, 2000) - Tibet 2000 Population Data with One sq km GIS Maps - Tibet 2004 Economic Census Data with ZIP Maps


45 7.3 Population and Economic Census Data 7.3 Population and Economic Census Data > 2,000 demographic variables in 2000 population Census 2000 Population Census: General Information Nationalities Age Structure Household Structure Education Fertility Deaths Marriage Migration Housing Status Industries and Occupations Geographical Levels: Country | Province | Prefecture | County | Township | 1 sq km Grid 2004 Economic Census: Employment Revenue Industries Products Ownerships


47 7.4 Historical Population Census Data (1953,1962,1982,1990,2000) Census 1953 Census 1982 Census 2000 Census 1962 Census 1990

48 7.5 China Data Online Tibet STATISTICS Monthly Statistics National Statistics Provincial Statistics City Statistics County Statistics Industrial Data Statistics on Map Statistical Yearbooks CENSUS DATA Economic Census Data Industrial Census Data Population Census (82,90,00,05)


50 References Veek, Pannell, Smith and Huang. 2008. China’s Geography, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Tibet: The Truth (video) Tibet: The Truth

51 Thank You The Participants of UROP China Project: Jenny ChiuShang Kong Min Ah KimSu Kyung Carson QingAnnie Su China Data Center, University of Michigan

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