Ancient Israel is the birthplace of the 3 great monotheistic religions of the world: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Ancient Israel dates back approximately 4000 years to the books of the Old Testament Great patriarchs of Judaism: Abraham, Jacob, Moses, Joshua Hebrews, Israelites, Jews, Semites: have all undergone persecution throughout history; from Babylonian Captivity, Exodus, Diaspora, Spanish Inquisition, Holocaust
Hebrew means “From the other side of the river”- name given to Abraham and his followers Israelites: Abraham’s grandson Jacob renamed Israel which means “he who has wrestled with God”. His descendants were called “Israelites” Jews: named after Jacob’s son Judah, ancient father of tribe of King David’s dynasty
Abraham’s grandson Jacob took name “Israel” which means “ God ruled ”; the organized Israelites tribes were named for his sons and grandsons (Joseph’s kids) Israel had 2 wives – one of whom he loved more! She had 2 kids – Joseph & Benjamin
Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers. He rose to become the 2 nd in command to the Pharaoh. When famine came, his brothers came to Egypt to get food. The Pharaoh let Joseph move all of his family into Egypt. That Pharaoh died, Joseph’s family grew, and they were enslaved.
Moses found our he was really a Hebrew, and killed an Egyptian who was mistreating a Hebrew slave; then he fled Egypt to escape punishment; He became a shepherd and lived away from Egypt for some time; then received a revelationsfrom Yahweh who appeared as a burning bush; Yahweh told him to go free the Hebrews from Egypt; Yahweh sent 10 plagues on Egypt, End of 13 th century BCE- Moses led the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt during Rames II reign called the EXODUS – parting of the Red Sea Moses led the 12 Tribes of Israel to Mount Sinai where Yahweh gave him the 10 Commandments, uniting the Hebrews under one God - Yahweh Moses and Hebrews searched for the “ Promised Land ” or the land of milk and honey, however they wandered in the desert for 40 years as punishment for disobeying Yahway
Yahweh’s “Covenant” With His People The Torah The first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible. The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition. The first 5 books of the Hebrew Bible. The most sacred text in the Jewish religious tradition.
King Solomon’s Temple Floor Plan The First Temple
Inside the Temple Tabernacle The Arc of the Covenant
The Temple Mount, Jerusalem Today Solomon’s Temple Wall: The “Wailing” Wall
Kingdoms of Judah & Israel Kingdoms of Judah & Israel
After the death of Solomon, Kingdom of Israel split into two (north= Israel; south= Judah) Israel was conquered by Assyrians in 722 BCE and the scattered people were known as the ‘Lost Tribes of Israel’ Judah was eventually destroyed by Babylon in 586 BCE and inhabitants were held in captivity (called the Exile or Babylonian Captivity) Emergence of synagogues and rabbis during Exile Released by Persians in 538 BCE and returned to Jerusalem to rebuild temple
Diaspora is a Greek word meaning “sowing of seed” or “dispersal” which refers to Jewish population living outside of Israel In 332 BCE, Jewish people in fell under Hellenization (Greek culture) as Alexander the Great conquered Persia, Egypt and India 164 BCE, group of Jews called the Maccabees revolted against Greek rule, took control of Jerusalem and rededicated the Temple to God (Hanukkah) 64 BCE, Jerusalem fell to Romans and the Kingdom of Judah became one of the provinces of the Roman Empire ( Judea). The people living there were called Judeans, and it is from this word that we get the word Jew In 66 CE the people of Judea revolted against Rome. This uprising was crushed and the temple was destroyed for a second time in 70 CE Despite the dispersion of Jewish people throughout Europe after 70 CE, their culture and religious beliefs have been by far the most influential of all the ancient cultures of the Near East
Covenant = formal agreement between Hebrews and God (Yahweh); Hebrews worshipped God and only God, and in return, they would be God’s Chosen People and given Canaan as the Promised Land Spiritual ideas profoundly influenced Western culture, morality, ethics and conduct Three of the world’s most dominant religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam all derive their roots from the spiritual beliefs of the Ancient Israelites
JUDAISM Monotheism - 1 God Torah- holy book Ten Commandments- law code Synagogue or temple- house of worship Sabbath- holy day is Saturday Kosher food (no pork or shellfish) Orthodox, Conservative or Reformed Important days: Hannukah, Passover, Yom Kippur, Rosh Hashanah Judaism Today!
“Setting the Stage” A Modern Conflict rooted in Ancient History According to Jews, their claim goes back 3,000 years when Jewish (Hebrew) kings first ruled from Jerusalem. According to Palestinians (both Muslim & Christian), the land has belonged to them since the Jews were driven out by the Romans in 135 A.D. According to Arabs, the land has belonged to them since the Mohammed-led conquest of the area in the 7 th century. A Conflict Complicated by Modern Events Textbook p. 901
614 A.D. Persian Empire captures Jerusalem. Country of Palestine first appears. 1099 A.D. European Crusaders capture Jerusalem 1517 A.D. Ottoman Empire capture Jerusalem
Under Ottoman Empire Jews, Christians and Muslims could all practice their own religions and beliefs. By the late 1700’s the different religions and cultures began to fight. Jews began to leave Israel. Over 10 million Jews were scattered across the world prior to 1914. By 1914 almost 85,000 Jews had returned to the Ottoman controlled Palestine and Jerusalem. These Jews were called Zionists. They were named after the hill in Jerusalem. Many Palestinian Muslims began to worry they would lose their lands. 1917 A.D. British defeat Ottoman Empire during WWI and capture Jerusalem.
After WWI all Arabs within Palestine were promised they would be granted the right of self-determination. Self-determination: the right to decide their own political future. Fighting between Arabs and Jews increased. Arabs boycotted Jewish businesses, burned bridges and destroyed crops. Many Jews retaliated against the Arabs. Many people died. Britain passed a law restricting the number of Jews to Palestine 1933 Adolf Hitler became leader of Nazi Germany and began persecuting all Jewish people of Europe. By 1939 many Jews fled to Palestine increasing their numbers to over 445,000 Jews.
By the end of WWII in 1945 over 6,000,000 Jews had been killed by Nazi Germany. This is called the Holocaust. Creation of Modern Israel: Many Jewish organizations demanded that Britain allow more Jews into Palestine and help create their own state. 1947 The United Nations took control over Palestine to the United Nations (UN). British government withdrew it’s occupation and control The UN decided to split Palestine into two countries: Israel & Palestine Many Arabs were angry over this and went to war with Israel. By 1948 Israel controlled almost all of Palestine. Both Jordan and Egypt claimed the rest of Palestine Palestinians left without a country!
1949 many Palestinians took refuge in the Gaza strip which was controlled by Egypt. Gaza Strip is a narrow strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea that is occupied by over 750,000 Palestinian refugees. 1967 Israel went to war with Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon. Israel won and took control over the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. West Bank: Located on the eastern border of Israel and Jordan. Over one million Palestinian refugees remained in the West Bank. Those that left could not return to their homes. 1967-1991: the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) and the Israeli government conducted terrorist and military attacks against each other. During this time many Israeli citizens moved to both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. 1991-2000:Israel and the PLO met in Madrid, Spain to discuss peace talks. Israel handed over political control of Gaza Strip and many cities within the West Bank to the Palestinians. Mistrust between the Israeli government towards the Palestinians and the peace treaty irrupted into a violent conflict. Hundreds died.