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Canada’s Involvement in Post-WWII Wars Ch. 6 (p. 138-139, 144-145, 153-155)

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Presentation on theme: "Canada’s Involvement in Post-WWII Wars Ch. 6 (p. 138-139, 144-145, 153-155)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Canada’s Involvement in Post-WWII Wars Ch. 6 (p , , )

2 Korean War Korea divided in two after WWII Korea divided in two after WWII Soviet Union controlled North – communist Soviet Union controlled North – communist Supported by China Supported by China USA controlled South - democratic USA controlled South - democratic 1950: North Korea invades South Korea 1950: North Korea invades South Korea United Nations condemns invasion, approves UN military force to help South Korea United Nations condemns invasion, approves UN military force to help South Korea UN force from 15 countries, including Canada, but mostly from the USA UN force from 15 countries, including Canada, but mostly from the USA Minister of External Affairs Lester Pearson tried to negotiate a ceasefire Minister of External Affairs Lester Pearson tried to negotiate a ceasefire USA considered using atomic bomb USA considered using atomic bomb

3 Korean War 1953: Stalemate, ceasefire, Korea remained divided in two 1953: Stalemate, ceasefire, Korea remained divided in two Increased tensions between Western countries and communist countries Increased tensions between Western countries and communist countries First example of “proxy war” First example of “proxy war” War fought indirectly between USA and USSR War fought indirectly between USA and USSR Approx. 300 Canadians killed, 1200 injured Approx. 300 Canadians killed, 1200 injured

4 Korean War

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7 Vietnam War Like Korea, Vietnam divided in two Like Korea, Vietnam divided in two Communist North, Democratic-ish South Communist North, Democratic-ish South USA believed that if South became communist, then many countries in region would follow – “domino theory” USA believed that if South became communist, then many countries in region would follow – “domino theory” 1960s: USA sends increasing amount of troops to South to prevent communist takeover 1960s: USA sends increasing amount of troops to South to prevent communist takeover 1965: President Johnson orders bombing of North Vietnam, keeps sending more troops 1965: President Johnson orders bombing of North Vietnam, keeps sending more troops USSR and China supplying N. Vietnamese army USSR and China supplying N. Vietnamese army

8 Vietnam War

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11 Canada’s Reaction Canada’s Reaction Opinion divided, became increasingly anti-war Opinion divided, became increasingly anti-war First televised war, images on news weakened support First televised war, images on news weakened support My Lai Massacre – several hundred women, children, elderly killed My Lai Massacre – several hundred women, children, elderly killed Anti-war protests/demonstrations across US & Canada Anti-war protests/demonstrations across US & Canada PM Pearson against Canadian involvement PM Pearson against Canadian involvement Criticized Vietnam War in speech at US university Criticized Vietnam War in speech at US university President Johnson furious, let Pearson know it President Johnson furious, let Pearson know it No Canadian troops fought in the Vietnam War No Canadian troops fought in the Vietnam War Many American “draft dodgers” fled to Canada Many American “draft dodgers” fled to Canada Canadian companies sold equipment to US military Canadian companies sold equipment to US military

12 Vietnam War

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15 US unable to defeat North Vietnamese US unable to defeat North Vietnamese 1969: President Nixon promises to end war 1969: President Nixon promises to end war All US troops out of Vietnam by 1973 All US troops out of Vietnam by 1973 South Vietnam taken over by North, country unified under communist rule South Vietnam taken over by North, country unified under communist rule Many Vietnamese refugees flee country, thousands immigrate to Canada Many Vietnamese refugees flee country, thousands immigrate to Canada

16 Vietnam War

17 First Gulf War August 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait, declared it a province of Iraq August 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait, declared it a province of Iraq Kuwait invaded because of its oil Kuwait invaded because of its oil United Nations tries to convince Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, to leave Kuwait, given deadline United Nations tries to convince Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, to leave Kuwait, given deadline Resolutions and economic sanctions Resolutions and economic sanctions Jan. 1991: deadline passes without Iraq withdrawal Jan. 1991: deadline passes without Iraq withdrawal UN forces, led by USA, begin Operation Desert Storm UN forces, led by USA, begin Operation Desert Storm Canada contributes 4000 troops, military personnel Canada contributes 4000 troops, military personnel First time Canadian women fought in a war First time Canadian women fought in a war Iraq troops bombed, pushed back to Iraq by March 1991 Iraq troops bombed, pushed back to Iraq by March 1991

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19 Yugoslav Civil Wars 1980s: rising ethnic tensions in Yugoslavia 1980s: rising ethnic tensions in Yugoslavia 1991: Croatia declares its independence from Yugoslavia, attacked by Yugoslavian army 1991: Croatia declares its independence from Yugoslavia, attacked by Yugoslavian army War spreads to other areas of country, acts of “ethnic cleansing” committed War spreads to other areas of country, acts of “ethnic cleansing” committed UN sends in peacekeepers UN sends in peacekeepers Canadian peacekeepers first to arrive in Bosnia- Herzegovina (region in Yugoslavia) Canadian peacekeepers first to arrive in Bosnia- Herzegovina (region in Yugoslavia) Unable to keep peace, prevent ethnic cleansing Unable to keep peace, prevent ethnic cleansing

20 Yugoslav Civil War

21 Yugoslav Civil Wars

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23 1995: NATO frustrated with ineffectiveness of UN, launches air strikes against Yugoslav army 1995: NATO frustrated with ineffectiveness of UN, launches air strikes against Yugoslav army Canada contributes as member of NATO Canada contributes as member of NATO Ceasefire eventually agreed to, US troops join UN peacekeepers Ceasefire eventually agreed to, US troops join UN peacekeepers 1998: Yugoslav forces move into Kosovo region to make sure it didn’t become independent 1998: Yugoslav forces move into Kosovo region to make sure it didn’t become independent 1999: NATO’s attempts to convince Yugoslav military to leave Kosovo fail, begins bombing of Yugoslavia 1999: NATO’s attempts to convince Yugoslav military to leave Kosovo fail, begins bombing of Yugoslavia Trying to force Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic to stop persecuting and killing people of Kosovo Trying to force Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic to stop persecuting and killing people of Kosovo

24 Yugoslav Civil Wars

25 Controversy over Canada’s participation in NATO bombings Controversy over Canada’s participation in NATO bombings For: NATO job to prevent war spreading, mistreatment of people of Kosovo For: NATO job to prevent war spreading, mistreatment of people of Kosovo Against: NATO should not interfere in another country’s affairs, bombing made things worse Against: NATO should not interfere in another country’s affairs, bombing made things worse What was NATO’s role after the Cold War? What was NATO’s role after the Cold War? What role should Canada play in US-dominated organizations after the Cold War? What role should Canada play in US-dominated organizations after the Cold War?

26 Second Gulf War After First Gulf War, UN placed economic sanctions on Saddam Hussein and Iraq, sends inspectors to make sure weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) destroyed After First Gulf War, UN placed economic sanctions on Saddam Hussein and Iraq, sends inspectors to make sure weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) destroyed Hussein repeatedly refused to cooperate with UN weapons inspectors Hussein repeatedly refused to cooperate with UN weapons inspectors 2002: President Bush pushes for military action against Iraq, believes Hussein developing WMDs 2002: President Bush pushes for military action against Iraq, believes Hussein developing WMDs UN Security Council refuses to authorize military action UN Security Council refuses to authorize military action

27 Second Gulf War March 2003: US invades Iraq without UN support March 2003: US invades Iraq without UN support Joined by “Coalition of the Willing”: Britain, Australia, Poland, Denmark, and smaller countries Joined by “Coalition of the Willing”: Britain, Australia, Poland, Denmark, and smaller countries PM Jean Chrétien and most Canadians against attack, supported further inspections PM Jean Chrétien and most Canadians against attack, supported further inspections Canada does not participate in Second Gulf War Canada does not participate in Second Gulf War April 2003: Iraq defeated, Saddam Hussein eventually captured and executed, US and coalition forces occupy country April 2003: Iraq defeated, Saddam Hussein eventually captured and executed, US and coalition forces occupy country

28 Second Gulf War

29 War in Afghanistan 2001: Sept. 11 terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, on United States 2001: Sept. 11 terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda, led by Osama bin Laden, on United States Leaders of Afghanistan, the Taliban, accused of protecting Al-Qaeda Leaders of Afghanistan, the Taliban, accused of protecting Al-Qaeda Afghanistan invaded by US to destroy Taliban and Al-Qaeda, find Osama bin Laden Afghanistan invaded by US to destroy Taliban and Al-Qaeda, find Osama bin Laden PM Chrétien pledges full Canadian support to US PM Chrétien pledges full Canadian support to US 2002: Taliban no longer in control, Canada sends troops to Kandahar region to find Al- Qaeda and Taliban, help Afghan people 2002: Taliban no longer in control, Canada sends troops to Kandahar region to find Al- Qaeda and Taliban, help Afghan people

30 War in Afghanistan

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32 Canadian troops continue to serve in Afghanistan Canadian troops continue to serve in Afghanistan Still very dangerous (133 Canadians killed, 2 in the past month) Still very dangerous (133 Canadians killed, 2 in the past month) Progress is slow, still many insurgents (violent rebels) Progress is slow, still many insurgents (violent rebels) Controversy over possible torture connections Controversy over possible torture connections Allegations that Canadian officials handed Afghan detainees (prisoners) over to Afghan authorities knowing they would be tortured Allegations that Canadian officials handed Afghan detainees (prisoners) over to Afghan authorities knowing they would be tortured Debate in Canada about future participation in Afghanistan continues Debate in Canada about future participation in Afghanistan continues For: rebuilding of Afghanistan not finished, no troops in Afghanistan would mean more violence and worse conditions For: rebuilding of Afghanistan not finished, no troops in Afghanistan would mean more violence and worse conditions Against: little progress being made, too many Canadians dying, not Canada’s responsibility Against: little progress being made, too many Canadians dying, not Canada’s responsibility


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