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Sect. 1 – Early Colonies Have Mixed Success

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Presentation on theme: "Sect. 1 – Early Colonies Have Mixed Success"— Presentation transcript:

1 Sect. 1 – Early Colonies Have Mixed Success

2 The English Plan Colonies
Colonies would provide a market for English exports Source or raw material Increase trade Build up gold supply Mercantilism – state controls trade and attempts to transfer wealth from colonies to parent country Reasons for going to America Lack of economic opportunity in England Gold mines Religious persecution

3 Financing a Colony Joint-Stock Company
Backed by investors – people put money in to earn profits Investor got shares Split any profits Divided any losses Virginia Company of London, Virginia Company of Plymouth, (later Massachusetts Bay Company and Dutch West Indies Company) Charter Written contract Issued by government Gave the holder right to establish colony

4 Who – Who were among the settlers at Sagadahoc?
Convicts Who was their leader? George Popham What happened to the colonists at Roanoke? Cut off from food supply by Native Americans – sent back to England What happened to the colony at Sagadahoc? Arguments, harsh winter, fights with Native Americans, food shortages, forced to return to England

5 What was the House of Burgesses?
Elected representatives that would meet once a year – first representative assembly in American Colonies What was Bacon’s Rebellion? Marched into Jamestown, took control of House of Burgesses and burned Jamestown to the ground. When was Jamestown settled? 1607 When did the starving time end? Starving time ended in 1610

6 Why did the settlers go to Jamestown?
Make money, find gold, new life, greater opportunities Why didn’t the settlers get along with their neighbors? Because they wanted more and more of their land Why did Jamestown nearly fail? Disease, unwilling to work, more interested in gold than work Why did Bacon’s rebellion occur? Opposed William Berkeley High taxes Favoritism toward large plantation owners Bacon wanted war with Native Americans to seize land for tobacco

7 How was Jamestown saved from failure?
Where was Roanoke? Island off of North Carolina Where was Sagadahoc? Maine – mouth of Kennebec River Where was Jamestown? In Virginia, on a small peninsula on James River How was Jamestown saved from failure? John Smith took over and forced colonists to work – tobacco provided money to build the colony.

8 Sect. 2 – New England Colonies

9 Causes of Conflict Result of Conflict King James vs. Pilgrims Pilgrims a separatist group. King attacked them for rejecting England’s Official church. Fled to Holland first. Approached Virginia Comp. To arrange to settle in America Puritans vs. Church of England Religious beliefs Wanted church of England to “purify” its practices Bad treatment by King. Left England to form colonies in America .Great Migration

10 Causes of Conflict Result of Conflict Puritan leaders vs. Roger Williams Opposed forced attendance at church. Opposed taking Native lands by force Left and started Rhode Island Puritan leaders vs. Anne Hutchinson Believed person could worship God without help of church, minister or Bible Banished and fled to Rhode Island

11 Causes of Conflict Result of Conflict Quakers vs. Massachusetts Commonwealth Believed that each person could know God directly through an inner light – no minister or bible needed. Treat Native Americans fairly Called Quakers. Whipped, imprisoned or hung. .Left for Rhode Island

12 Causes of Conflict Result of Conflict King Philip’s War Americans – land belonged to person or group. Native Americans – land belonged to everyone. Religion. Increased population of Europeans Colonial victory. Destruction of 12 colonial villages-600 military Native Americans killed. King Philip killed500 Native Americans enslaved


14 Causes of Conflict Result of Conflict Salem Witchcraft Trials Younger generations – different religious view than that of parents. False accusations. Witch hunts Arrests, trials and execution for witchcraft.

15 What was the Mayflower Compact?
Vowed to obey laws agreed upon for the good of the colony Helped establish the idea of self-government and majority rule


17 How did Squanto and Samoset help the Pilgrims?
Interpreter between Pilgrims and Chief Massasoit Negotiated a peace treaty Showed them how to plant, hunt and fish Describe the First Thanksgiving. Three day feast Represented the peace that existed at the time between Native Americans and Pilgrims

18 What was the New England Way?
Congregation – group of people who belonged to the same church Set up own town Meeting house Most important building Gathered for town meetings A form of self government Made laws and other decisions for the community Only male church members could vote or hold office

19 By law all had to attend church services
Sermon provided instruction in New England Way Emphasized duty, godliness, hard work and honesty Dancing and playing games would lead to laziness God requires them to work long and hard at their vocation Work ethic contributed to rapid growth and success of New England Colonies Depended on Education – laws required that all children be able to read

20 Who founded Connecticut?
Thomas Hooker What is the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut? A constitution Extended voting rights to non-church members Limited the power of the governor Expanded the idea of representative government

21 Describe the Beginning of New Hampshire?
Village near Portsmouth John Wheelwright – town of Exeter Exeter Compact – based on Mayflower Compact


23 What attracted Catholics, Quakers and Jews to these colonies?
Religious freedom What economic activities were important in the Middle Colonies? Hudson and Delaware river supported shipping and commerce River valleys had rich soil and mild winters Conditions favorable for farming and raising livestock

24 What area did New Netherland include?
Included Hudson river Valley, Long Island, land along Delaware river Explain the Patroon system. How did help attract settlers to New Netherland? Patroon system Person brought 50 settlers Reward – patron received large land grant Special privileges in hunting, fishing and fur trading on land Jews, Africans as slaves, indentured servants and Puritans

25 How did the English acquire New Netherland?
Peter Stuyvesant – governor Attacked New Sweden New Sweden surrendered

26 Explain how the Duke of York became owners of New York?
King Charles II wanted Duke to drive Dutch out of Netherland Dutch a threat to England’s trade Threat because of expanding settlements and location When Duke’s ships appeared off New Amsterdam the colony surrendered Became a proprietary colony of New York Duke was owner

27 How did the province of New Jersey come about?
Duke of York gave province of New Jersey to George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley How did the owners of the New Jersey colony attract settlers? Promised freedom of religion Large grants of land Representative assembly

28 How did Wm. Penn receive the land called Pennsylvania?
Joined the Quakers Attacked for his beliefs King Charles gave him large piece of land in America in partial payment to his family Called Pennsylvania – Means “Penns Woods” Created a colony for Quakers

29 How did Penn’s religious beliefs affect the way he governed Pennsylvania?
Quakers All people should live in peace and harmony Welcomed different religions and ethnic groups Wanted Native Americans to be treated fairly Policies made Pennsylvania one of the wealthiest of American Colonies

30 How did Delaware come about?
Granted three lower counties of Delaware their own Assembly – became Delaware

31 What attracted settlers to the Southern Colonies?
Maryland, Carolinas and Georgia Soil and climate suitable for crops such as tobacco, rice and indigo

32 Why did Lord Baltimore establish Maryland?
For Roman Catholics fleeing persecution in England Promised religious freedom to attract more settlers Passed Toleration Act

33 What was Maryland’s economy based on?
Economy based on tobacco Used up the land Had to clear new land every 3-4 years Laborers came as servants or slaves Few women as settlers

34 Who were the first settlers to Carolina and how did they live?
Early settlers build Charles Town – Charleston Cut timber, raised cattle and traded with Native Americans Refuge for Huguenots (French Protestants) seeking religious freedom

35 What changed the economy of Carolina and how did this lead to the beginning of slavery?
Needed laborers to grow rice and indigo Encouraged to used enslaved Africans Sold Native Americans into slavery Battle between settlers and Native Americans over Indian slaves and taking of land

36 In what way did Carolina change after it became a royal colony?
Battle between settlers and Native Americans over Indian slaves and taking of land No help from owners so they overthrew the rule Became Royal Colony – governor appointed by King Divided into North and South Carolina

37 Why did James Oglethorpe found Georgia?
Refuge for debtors How did the English government intent to use the Georgia colony? English governor wanted a military outpost against Spanish Florida and French Louisiana Spanish tried to force English out but unsuccessful

38 Why did Oglethorpe lose control and what happened to the colony?
Who settled in Georgia? English, German, Swiss and Scottish All religions welcome Why did Oglethorpe lose control and what happened to the colony? Oglethorpe set strict rules that upset colonists King made a royal colony

39 Visual Summary Back to Transparencies

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