Presentation on theme: "From the introduction to the new English PoS Pupils should be taught to control their speaking and writing consciously and to use Standard English. They."— Presentation transcript:
From the introduction to the new English PoS Pupils should be taught to control their speaking and writing consciously and to use Standard English. They should be taught to use the elements of spelling, grammar, punctuation and ‘language about language’ listed....This is not intended to constrain or restrict teachers’ creativity, but simply to provide the structure on which they can construct exciting lessons. Throughout the programmes of study, teachers should teach pupils the vocabulary they need to discuss their reading, writing and spoken language. It is important that pupils learn the correct grammatical terms in English and that these terms are integrated within teaching.
Grammar... is language is clarity and precision is description and creativity is empowering 2
3 Concept of a Sentence Physical Punctuation Sentence maker Retelling… One sentence at a time One word at a time
Where? When? How? 4
6 Compound sentences The child smiled. The teacher grinned. and but or so for nor yet “co-ordination”
Subordination: Main clause plus when, if, that, because
8 Subordination: Main clause plus time, place and cause with conjunctions, adverbs or prepositions
9 “Drop-ins” The wolf huffed and puffed at the door. The wolf, , huffed and puffed at the door. “who” or “which” New NC: Relative clauses, and relative pronouns (who, that, which, whose, why, where)
10 More drop-ins The wolf, pale and thin with hunger, huffed and puffed at the door. The wolf, snarling with hunger and anger, huffed and puffed at the door. The wolf, shocked by the lack of response, huffed and puffed at the door. The wolf, suddenly aware of the gravity of the situation, huffed and puffed at the door.
11 Precision, clarity and impact The man walked along the road.
Grammatical Terminology Suddenly, the inspector leapt across the classroom. Last week, a small child grinned with glee. As the alarm clock trilled, the teacher smiled because it was Monday again. The PC, which had seen better days, crashed again. Now it is time to begin.
Why......shouldn’t we call an adjective a “describing word”?...shouldn’t we call an adverb an “L-Y word”?
Analytic Grammar DOES NOT IMPROVE WRITING
Compositional Grammar DOES
A Head Teacher smiled. Is that the right article? Or even determiner? Is the verb precise enough? Use a prepositional phrase to introduce the object of the sentence. Add an adverbial phrase to say when this happened. Add a relative clause to bring in some useful information about the HT. 16
The car shook. Is that the right article? Or even determiner? Is the verb precise enough? Use a prepositional phrase to introduce the object of the sentence. Add an adverbial phrase to say when this happened. Add a relative clause to bring in some useful information about the car. 17
Standard English Grammar …is the grammatical form required in very nearly all writing. It does not involve accent. The teaching and learning of Standard English is a priority, in order that children can use it when and where necessary. If necessary, treat it as another language. Without Standard English, children’s chances and options in life are greatly reduced. 18
Phrase “A group of words that act as one unit” e.g. the dog, the big dog, that dog over there noun phrase: a big dog; my last holiday adjectival phrase: as old as you; really hungry adverbial phrase: five minutes ago; very slowly prepositional phrase: in a hurry; along the lane; under the stairs
Clause “A group of words that expresses an event or a situation” – usually containing a subject & verb e.g. she was thirsty (situation); she drank some water (event) phrase: a big dog; clause: a big dog chased me It was raining. (one clause) It was raining and we were cold. (two main clauses linked by “and”) It was raining when we went out. (main clause and a subordinate clause) 20
Clause – main and subordinate A main clause is complete on its own and can form a complete sentence (e.g. it was raining). A subordinate clause is part of the main clause and cannot exist on its own (e.g. when we went out). You’ll hurt yourself if you’re not careful. Although it was cold, the weather was pleasant enough. Where are the biscuits that I bought this morning? John, who was very angry, began shouting. 21
Clause – please note: Most clauses require subject and verb BUT Some subordinate clauses don’t – for example, where the verb “be” can be inferred. e.g. The weather, although rather cold, was pleasant enough. (although it was rather cold) When in Rome, do as the Romans do. (when you are in Rome)
Conjunctions Used to link clauses within sentences: It was raining but it wasn’t cold. (Coordinating conjunction) We won’t go out if the weather’s bad. (Subordinating conjunction) Coordinating conjunctions join two clauses of equal grammatical status. (and, or, but, so,) Subordinating conjunctions go at the beginning of a subordinate clause. (when, while, before, after, since, until, if, because, although, that) 23
Conjunctions Coordinating between items of equal status: Alarmed but safe Chocolate or vanilla She laughed and he cried. 24
Conjunctions Subordinating between items of unequal status: When the girl comes in from play, she may tell you that she loves maths after all When (subordinating conjunction) the girl comes in from play, (subordinate clause) she may tell you (main clause) that (subordinating conjunction) she loves maths after all. (subordinate clause) 25
“Connectives” Informal term Word or phrase that links clauses or sentences. Connectives can be Conjunctions (e.g. but, when, because) or Connecting adverbs (e.g. however, then, therefore)
Some connecting adverbs Addition – also, furthermore, moreover Opposition – however, nevertheless, on the other hand Reinforcing – besides (preposition & adverb), anyway, after all Explaining – for example, in other words, that is to say Listing – first (ordinal number used as adverb), first of all, finally Indicating result – therefore, consequently, as a result Indicating time – just then, meanwhile, later 27
What is an adverb? A one-word adverbial: How: simply, fast When: now, still, immediately, already Where: here, there, somewhere, away Intensifying: very sweet; rather exciting; fairly slowly Likelihood: definitely, seldom, often, never 28
What is an adverbial? A single word (an adverb), or A prepositional phrase: in addition, as fast as lightning, or An adverb phrase: too fast for me, very cleverly, or A noun phrase: last week, several times a day 29
Building sentences Expanding noun phrases She sat on the chair. She sat on the armchair. She sat on the old, brown armchair. She sat on the old, brown armchair in the corner of the study.
Building sentences Expanding noun phrases – Your turn She walked towards the car. 1.Picture the scene! 2.(Improve the noun) 3.One or two adjectives before the noun 4.Where is the thing? in the/ over the/ beyond the/ under the …(etc)
Building sentences Adverbial phrases: How? When? Where? The mouse ran. The dormouse fled. The dormouse fled in panic. At the stroke of midnight, the dormouse fled in panic. At the stroke of midnight, the dormouse fled out of the kitchen in panic.
Building sentences Adverbial phrases: Your turn! The dog barked. 1.Picture the scene 2.(Improve the noun and verb if possible) 3.How/ When/ Where? - Choose two, but start your sentence with one of them! Try to use a phrase or clause rather than individual words: “immediately” could become “all of a sudden”; “deafeningly” could become “loud enough to make the windows shake” 33
SIMPLECONTINUOUSPERFECT PERFECT CONTINUOUS PAST I walked I was walkingI had walkedI had been walking PRESENTI walkI am walkingI have walkedI have been walking FUTUREI shall walkI shall be walkingI shall have walkedI shall have been walking Verb Tenses
Sentence functions Statement It was a lovely day. Question Was it a lovely day? Exclamation What a lovely day! Command Make it a lovely day.
Commas are for Meaning She went to the shops and bought chocolate oranges butter biscuits and a coconut. I hate that Mary! She strode off her face glowing red.
Comma Splicing If you can use a full stop, you can’t use a comma. - or - Don’t substitute a full stop for a comma. (But you might use a comma with a connective)
Apostrophes Contraction: do it physically Refer to “contractions”: don’t, we’d, should’ve… Ownership: Create labels everywhere: Class 6’s scissors; Mrs Smith’s books; Mr Jones’ chair; The caretaker’s office; the children’s doorway…
Parenthesis An afterthought, or additional information The sentence still works if you take it out Brackets, dashes and commas How do you choose between them?
Parenthesis How do you choose between them? He came, at long last, to the mountain of doom. The Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus, to use its scientific name) is 25 metres in length. She says – as you’d expect – that she’d already told you about the party.
Colon Vs Semi colon : Introduce a list Introduce a following example Before a second clause that expands/ illustrates the first: He was very cold: the temperature was below freezing ; Separate two main clauses in a sentence, particularly where they are closely related: I liked the book; it was a pleasure to read. Separate items in a list if the items are longer phrases: I need large, juicy tomatoes; half a pound of butter; a kilo of fresh pasta; and a jar of fresh olives 42
The Tyrannosaur was one of the largest predators of the Cretaceous era : a full-grown male would weigh more than a bull African elephant. The Tyrannosaur was one of the largest predators of the Cretaceous era ; it is amazing to think that it is quite closely related to a chicken. Colon Vs Semi colon
Passive The object becomes the subject: The child popped the balloon. The balloon was popped by the child.
Passive The object becomes the subject: The child popped the balloon. The balloon was popped.
Passive The object becomes the subject: The child popped the balloon. The balloon was popped. Hide the “do-er”: I lost my reading diary. My reading diary was lost by me.
Passive The object becomes the subject: The child popped the balloon. The balloon was popped. Hide the “do-er”: I lost my reading diary. My reading diary was lost.
Subjunctive verb form desire, necessity, uncertainty All the players are excellent. He required that all the players be excellent. I insist that Mr Gove writes to me to explain. I insist that Mr Gove write to me to explain.
Play with the new skill Apply in Speech – model, share, independent Apply in Writing – model, share, independent Written grammatical exercises just don’t seem to work (especially not for the children who really need the help)