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Chapter 18 Section 2 The Cold War Heats Up.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Section 2 The Cold War Heats Up."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Section 2 The Cold War Heats Up

2 Civil War in China During WWII- A Japanese invasion interrupted a long Chinese Civil War Communists vs. Nationalists Communist leader-Mao Zedong Nationalist leader-Chiang Kai-shek

3 Civil War in China US begins aiding Nationalists during WWII

4 Civil War in China US military officials didn’t like Chiang
Found his govmt dictatorial, inefficient, and hopelessly corrupt Policies of Chiang undermined the Nationalists

5 Civil War in China collected a grain tax from farmers during a famine
Secret police fired against protesters protesting against a 10,000% increase in the price of rice

6 Civil War in China Communists skillful in winning support of the peasants Communists would redistribute land to peasants and reduce rents

7 Fighting Breaks Out As soon as Japanese left China-civil war resumed
Americans favored the nationalists because they opposed communists 1944 to 47 US tried to make peacemaker between 2 groups-while still supporting nationalists

8 Fighting Breaks Out Truman refused to commit American soldiers
US sent $2 billion worth of military equipment and supplies

9 Fighting Breaks Out Nationalist problems: Weak military leadership
Corrupt Abusive practices drove peasants to the communists

10 Fighting Breaks Out May Chiang and the remnants of his govmt and army fled to Taiwan An island east of mainland China

11 America Reacts to Communist Takeover
American public stunned Containment failed Congress attack Truman for not supplying enough aid to Chiang Shouldn’t containment be important in Asia as well as Europe?

12 America Reacts to Communist Takeover
State Department said the only way to help the Nationalists was to go to war A war the US wasn’t prepared to fight Most people accepted this reasoning Some rejected it as lame excuses

13 America Reacts to Communist Takeover
Many claimed the US “lost” China Said American govmt was riddled with Communist agents American fear of Communism grew

14 Koreans go to War Japan ruled Korea until 1945
Japanese north of 38th parallel surrendered to Russians South of 38th parallel surrendered to the US

15 Koreans go to War 38th parallel not intended as a permanent boundary
2 different nations emerged-one communist, one not South Korea becomes Republic of Korea-headed by Syngman Rhee

16 Koreans go to War North becomes Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Headed by Kim Il Sung By US and Soviets had left Korea Each govmt claimed sole right to rule all Korea


18 North Korea Attacks South Korea
June 25, 1950 North invades South-Begins Korean War Americans alarmed that another Asian nation may fall to communism Truman decides to take military action

19 North Korea Attacks South Korea
June 27, 1950-UN pledges to help South Korea 16 nations with 520,000 troops assist South Korea Under command of Douglas MacArthur

20 US Fights in Korea NK unstoppable at 1st
After 1 month- UN troops forced to small defensive zone around Pusan

21 MacArthur’s Counterattack
MacArthur launches counterattack Sept 15, 1950 UN troops land at Inchon Other troops move north from Pusan North Koreans trapped in the middle

22 MacArthur’s Counterattack
Many NK troops surrendered Many fled back behind 38th parallel 10/7/1950- UN recommends MacArthur cross 38th parallel and reunite Korea

23 MacArthur’s Counterattack
China warned that they would not stand by and let the Americans come to the border-the Yalu River MacArthur dismisses Chinese threat

24 The Chinese Fight Back 11/25/1950- 300,000 Chinese move into NK
By Christmas, Chinese force UN forces 100 miles south of 38th parallel 2 more years neither side able to make an advance

25 MacArthur Recommends Attacking China
Calls for extension of war into China-to end the stalemate Blockade Chinese coast Use atomic bombs on China Use Chiang Kai Shek’s troops to invade southern China

26 MacArthur Recommends Attacking China
Truman rejects MacArthur’s request Didn’t want US involved in a massive land war in Asia Soviets had a mutual assistance pact with the Chinese Could set off WWIII

27 MacArthur Recommends Attacking China
Instead of attacking China – UN forces advance against Korean forces Retake Seoul Moved back up to the 38th parallel

28 Settling for a Stalemate
Soviets suggest a cease-fire on June 23, 1951 Truce talks began in July 1951

29 Settling for a Stalemate
By following Spring, opposing sides agreed on 2 points: 1. Location of the ceasefire line at the existing battle line 2. Establish a demilitarized zone between the opposing sides

30 Settling for a Stalemate
July two sides sign an armistice ending the war Basically ended in a stalemate

31 American Victory? Communism contained without a world war
No use of atomic weapons Although the threat of using them helped break a negotiation deadlock

32 Communist Victory? North Korea still communist
Still 2 Koreas rather than 1

33 Effects of Korean War 54,000 Americans killed
Cost between $20 and $22 billion High cost of war led to rejection of Democratic party in 1952 Election of Dwight D. Eisenhower as President Increased fear of communist aggression Prompted a hunt for spies

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