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WHY WAS THE BERLIN WALL BUILT? BACKGROUND: - 1945, WWII ended - Germany was in ruins; everything had to be rebuilt (including the Media) - The Allies split.

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Presentation on theme: "WHY WAS THE BERLIN WALL BUILT? BACKGROUND: - 1945, WWII ended - Germany was in ruins; everything had to be rebuilt (including the Media) - The Allies split."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHY WAS THE BERLIN WALL BUILT? BACKGROUND: , WWII ended - Germany was in ruins; everything had to be rebuilt (including the Media) - The Allies split Berlin & Germany into 4 zones. (USA, Britain, France, and the USSR) : the USA, Britain, France zones were combined into ‘West Germany’; USSR formed ‘East Germany’ *: - A CLASH OF IDEAS: * USA: - Democracy - Freedom  A privately owned press (without government control) was built in West Germany (by military forces) - People could read & do what they want *USSR: - Socialist Republic - The government controlled all economic activities:  Including the Media - The News = teaching tool  People were supposed to read and learn what the government wanted them to know RADIO: (USSR) May 1945, Immediately took over Berlin's only surviving radio transmitter (refusing to let the other Allies to use it) (USA) Nov. 1945, Started DIAS (Drahtfunk): telephone wires that carried signals to special home receivers NEWSPAPER: (EAST) Written voice of the state. All news were used “to direct the thinking of the people into correct political lines” (WEST) Free press model. Oct : ‘Neue Zeitung’ was established. In the West, nearly 20 papers were in action THE BERLIN BLOCKADE: the USSR blockaded West Germany - The West launched ‘The Berlin Airlift’, flying 8,000 tons of food and other necessities to the 2.5 million Berliners - May 1949: Blockade was lifted THE BARRIER RISES: - By 1961, 1,000 people a day fled from East Germany to West Germany (Many who escaped were young and trained professionals) - The West Media reported the exodus  The East (censored) media ignored it - August 13, 1961: the East German government built a 27-mile-long wall of barbed wire splitting East from West Berlin to ‘protect citizens from capitalism’ - Telephone lines & mail service between East and West Germany were cut - Citizens in the East couldn’t visit the West - The Wire was then replaced with stones, steel, and (army) force. - THE BERLIN WALL WAS BUILT RADIO: (USSR): August 13, East German radio broadcasted…they were grateful to be protected from the criminals in the West. (WEST) The US sector radio reported that wire fences were sealing off the border, and that Soviet tanks rolled into East Berlin. -CHRISTINE SHIH- NEWSPAPER: (USSR) Neues Deutschland (East German newspaper) … no mention of the government’s plan to build the border…announced that the wall was for protection…Aug 14, protesters were arrested SHOT AT THE WALL: - August 17, Peter Fechter (18 year-old bricklayer) tried to jump over the wall. - East German soldiers fired and wouldn’t allow anyone to help Fechter  he died - 50th casualty REPORT: - August 1961, Kellett-Long reported (from East Berlin) to London about the increasing tensions (e.g. Police harassing passengers travelling to the West) - The report didn’t get to London (it was censored) SUMMARY: The Berlin Wall was built because… 1. WEST: democracy (free speech) EAST: Communism (repression, no freedom of speech) 2. Higher living standards in the West than in the East  1948: West Germany got financial help from the Marshall plan (USA) : more than 2.6 million East Berliners fled to West Berlin  East Germany was rapidly losing both its labour force and its population SUCCESSES OF THE WEST: -Capitalist society & Marshall Aid (1948)  rapid economy growth (“the economic miracle”) - West Germany: able to live well, buy gadgets and appliances, and to travel


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