3Tolteca-Chichimeca & Nonoalca Populated by two groupsTolteca-Chichimecaprobably original Nahuatl-speakers who founded Toltec statereported to have come from northleader was Mixcoatl ("Cloud Serpent" = Milky Way)reported to have settled at a place in the Valley of Mexico called Colhuacanson and heir was Tolpitzin, later identified with Quetzalcoatldescribed as having fair skin and black beardCe Acatl Tolpitzin, born at TepoztlÝn, Morelos in AD 935 or 947searched for and buried deceased father's remainsmoved Toltec capital to Tula in AD 968
4NonoalcaReferred to as highly civilized leaders, priests, merchants, and craftsmen (bearers of the Mesoamerican tradition)Davies sees them as coming possibly from Gulf Coast region of Veracruz and Tabasco, or they may have come from TeotihuacanDiehl believes they probably included upper and middle classes from Teotihuacan, Monte Alban, Xochicalco, El Tajin, and other centers who were forced to search out new lives when home communities declinedsuggests migration played a major role in formation of Toltec civilization
5Toltec economy Agriculture Irrigation was essential Sahagun's* informants told him Toltecs had ears of corn that could hardly be carried in one's arms, cotton in all different colors (from bright red to green, blue, and violet)maize was the basic food sourcesupplemented with beans, chili peppers, amaranth, squashes, and magueymedicinal plants and drugs also grownfarming in milpas and household gardensearth worked with stone or wooden hoesplanting with wooden digging stickspolycropping common (beans and squash with maize)Irrigation was essentialTlaloc was probably a critical deityhillside terraces built to trap water and silt for agricultureintensification technique which was probably a response to population pressure*Sahagun was a Spanish missionary, born in Sahagun, Leon, late in the 15th century; died in Mexico, 23 October, 1590.
6Hunting and gathering Wild seeds included mesquite and chenopodium fruits included cherry-like capulin, persimmon, and prickly pearturkeys and small dogs were only meat-producing domestic animalsbees were probably raised for honeywild animals included deer, jackrabbit, cottontail rabbit
7Craft production "Toltec" came to mean master craftsman or artisan Sahagun's informants described "scribes, lapidarians, carpenters, stone cutters, masons, feather workers, feather gluers, potters, spinners, and weavers"feather work is reported to have been exceptionally goodused on shieldsworked turquoise, gold, copper, tin, mica, and lead, together with green stones, amber, rock crystal (quartz), amethyst, pearls, and opalstecali, often confused with onyx, used for beads, ornaments, bowls, jars, and other luxury productsbowls made by polishing and coringobsidiancontrolled Pachuca obsidian minesprized above all other obsidian by Mesoamericansused-up cores found all over city, not just in workshop zonesuggests cores were produced for tradeDiehl suggests 2000 craftsmen
10Atlantes Altar support from the Temple of Quetzalcoatl Rear view of the altar support
11CommerceDiehl believes there was a Toltec "pochteca" (specialized merchant group)trade wares included Central American polychromes, Plumbate, Central Veracruz wares, and Huastec pottery from north Gulf Coastconspicuously absent was Fine Orange from southern Veracruz, Tabasco, and Campechecacao and quetzal feathers may have come from Guatemalanorthern steppe zones provided turquoise, serpentine, quartz, rock crystal, mica, amethyst, and cinnabaralso peyote and hallucinogenic mushroomsPacific coast shells indicate commercial ties with Michoacan, Nayarit, and Colimametal ornaments, especially copper, may also have come from this region
12Religion Tezcaltlipoca - the night and the darkness Tláloc god of the rain and the vegetationCentéotl god of the cornltzpapáloti or butterfly of obsidianTonatiuh or solar god.
14Politics - "The Toltec State" Precise definitions of borders impossibleincluded much of central Mexico and adjacent areas to the northHidalgo, Basin of Mexico, Valley of Toluca, parts of Baja and Morelosmost of northern boundary coincided with limits of effective agricultureMotivation for empire building was "free" wealth in the form of tributeMatricula de Tributos, an Aztec document, gives us an idea of the types of tribute receivedEmphasis on three types of goodsfoodmaize, beans, chilis, amaranth, chian, and animalstextilesgoods of cotton and maguey fiber, cotton goods probably reserved for the eliteexotic luxury goodsfeathers, animal skins, minearal, semi-precious stones, and other items such as lumber, pottery, lime, bark paper, honey, and wild animals
15Important rulers mentioned in drama of Toltec history Tolpitzin Quetzalcoatlenthroned as priest and king of Tollan, said to have led his people away from human sacrifice, also had problems: incest with sister when drunk, fled Tula in shame after run-in with Tezcatlipoca, also struggled with Ihuimecatl and ToltecatlTezcatlipoca ("Smoking Mirror")sacrificer, lord of sorcerers, reported as charming and enchanting peopleKukulcanculture hero reported to have arrived in Maya area ca. ADreported as Mexican conqueror who arrived with companions to subjugate the country"Kukulcan" is a translation of "Feathered Serpent" into Yucatec Mayasaid to have ruled Chichen Itza until his deathHuemac,last king of Tula, forced to flee as a result of growing factionalism and encroaching barbarianssome identify Huemac as Tezcatlipoca, said to have fled around AD 1063 due to droughts, conflicts, and fighting between the Tolteca-Chichimeca and Nonoalca result in destruction of Tula ca. 1150settled in Chapultepec, on western banks of Lake Texcoco dated to 1156 or and eventually killed himself
16ArchaeologyMulti-ethnic group that introduced changes in public and religious architecture and new styles of stone carving and ceramics.Tula buliders did not call themselves Toltecs, but the Aztec used the word to refer to a skilled craftsperson or artisan.mixture of Nahuatl, Otomi, Nonoalca, Chichimec peoples.Carnegie Museum of Washington who had been working at Chichen Itza began excavations at Tula, Hidalgo., also University of Missouri worked with Mesoamerican groups to conduct work after 1966.Chronology in the area based largely on ceramics.Prior to 400 A.D. Tula region was integrated with Teotihuacan, but most people in the area were farmers and also some Hilltop sites such as Mogone.By around 700 A.D. areas such as Tula Chico which is situated north of the Tula area with civic-ceremonial architecture laid out in a n-s axis.Several areas occupied for different reasons and at different times in Tula.Tula Chica, Cerro Mogone, Tula Grande, Tula de Allende, Canal Locality, El Corral, Cerro El Cielito, Cerro La Malinche.
17Early ExcavationsArchaeologist Jorge Acosta, primary excavator at Tula, stands next to Pyramid B.
18Tula A.D. 900-1200 Development of city north of Teotihuacan. Located on the Tula river and near the Lerma rivers for easy communication with others.This new capital was closer to the northern limits of agriculture.Toltec history embellished by Aztecs, Spaniards and others after their collapse in 1200 A.D.
19Tula Geography Climate north of Valley of Mexico in southern part of state of Hidalgorivers flow northeast to Rio Moctezuma, then down Sierra Madre Oriental into Rio Panuco and Gulf of MexicoDry, desertified areahardy scrup and cactus thickets, mesquite, prickly pear, and yuccasoils are rich, alluvial ones but irrigation necessary for agriculturehigh mountains to the east hold clouds away from area and rainy season precipitation is insufficient for rainfall agricultureTula area has slightly more rain, irrigation water, and arable land than rest of regionClimatemild, with annual temperatures ranging from 16-19C (60-66F)monthly temperatures average from 11C (52F) in December to 38C (100F) in May with frosts frequent in winter
20Tula GrandeJust south of Tula Chico, was occupied during the prime phase of Tula A.D.13 km in area, with a population of 30-60,000 residents.craftspeople, trades people, religious leaders, but not farmers.workshops included manos and metates makers.City laid out on n-s axis.center with double plaza complex, two pyramids, council halls, and a colonnaded vestibule.two ballcourts, much of this built on large single platform meters in height.Building C was the most impressive but was destroyed.Building B is the Temple to Quetzalcoatl.stone sculpture is largely made of columns, pillars, relief panels, and atlantids which are figures of men used to support roofs or altars.a new feature known as a serpent wall which does not surround the temple but is free standing along the north.also depictions of Patolli playing which is a game of chance played by many mesoamerican groups and is similar to modern Parchessi.chacmool figures as well.
211. North Ball Court2. Coatepantli3. Palace of Quetzalcoatl4. Palace of the Columns5. Vestibule6. Temple of Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli7. Mound C8. Tzompantli9. South Ball Court
22Tula Ballcourts Ballcourt 1 Ballcourt 2 Stone (found in the center of the ballcourt) possibly connected with the scoring or ritual of the game
27Recreation of what the temple would have looked like in the past.
28Pyramid C Talud-tablero Drainage in Rear of pyramid
29CoatepantliDetail of the Coatepantli, which depicts a band of serpents devouring a skeletal formOn the inner side of this is a well preserved frieze depicting a rather grisly scene of a long line of snakes swallowing skeletal people, who are thought to be warriors.
31Toltec Sphere of Influence Sphere vs. EmpireNot really a major empire like Teotihuacan or some other sites.It never had a well-defined boundary and nothing to indicate centralized control.TradeMust have been an important influence on their wealth, organization and management.Toltec artifacts have a wide but uneven distribution.much art has militaristic displays, but no coercion or conquest has been discovered archaeologically.Artifacts found at sites such as Casas Grandes to the north, sites to the west, and Veracruz.Received items such as gold from the south.
32Fall of Tula and the Toltecs Sahagun's version:Epic conflict between Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatllatter represented by priest or ruler Ce Acatl Tolpitzin Quetzalcoatlmay have shared sovereignty with HuemacTezcalipoca is said to have created so much misfortune that the Toltecs perished or fled TulaQuetzalcoatl fled to Gulf CoastHuemac fled to Chapultepec
33Fall of Tula and the Toltecs Davies scenarionorthern frontier shifted southward through time, opening Tula to attack ca. 1120caused some Toltecs to migrate into lands claimed by Cholulaimmigrants from northern frontier turned on their hosts and assisted Cholula with help agains Toltec invadersgroup of northerners, led by Mixcoatl, settled in Basin of Mexico after helping CholulansMixcoatl's sone Ce Acatl Topiltzin gained control of Tula in AD 1166conflicts arose with Tula-born faction led by Huemacincreased pressures from Huastecs and Chichimecs led to stress and downfall of both men
34Problems were both Internal and External Agricultureagriculture was especially sensitive to droughtproblem became critical with population growthTula may have become overpopulated by 1100climate change and decrease in precipitation may have caused many years of faminehistorical accounts contain many references to food problemsConflictsoften coupled with stories of conflicts and battles over land, famine may have coincided with period of greatest influx of populationSocial integrationproblems of multi-ethnicitycontinual flow of migrants into the city caused strainsmigrants may have been toughened and warlike
35Archaeological evidence Evidence for fire and destruction found in every buildingNot clear that all of it took place at onceCanal Locality houses appear to have been abandoned by 1100 on the basis of radiocarbon datesUrban peripheries appear to have been abandoned before central core
36Toltec LegacySlowly, a few city states rose up to dominate their neighbors, but no real successor to the Toltec power emerged during this period.The Kings of Culhuacan, as described in their "Annales de Culhuacan" had some limited power, claiming descent from the legendary Toltecs.But every other dynasty (Quiche, Itza, Mixtec, Chichimec) did the same.Claiming to be a descendent of the Toltec Kings was routine; even if many of the earliest rulers after the fall of Tula were in all likelihood truly related to the nobles of the Mixcoatl/Topiltzin/Huemac era, most of the succeeding generations of petty rulers were not.History, however, is written by the victors, and the victors in the incessant warfare of the post-Toltec era were eager to associate themselves with the once glorious Toltecs.